Research shows that hydrogen vehicles are the vehicles that use hydrogen as the main fuel for movement power. These include hydrogen fueled space rockets, automobiles as well as other vehicles used for transportation purposes. In most cases, the power producers of such vehicles tend to convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy through burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine. In addition, they can be converted through the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to move the electric motors. Most people or vehicle firms are implementing the use of hydrogen for improving transportation in order to save on the economy of hydrogen. The hydrogen powered vehicles applies hydrogen as a fuel for motive power and it has shown to be the perfect option for a fuel source basing on the fact that fossil fuels on which most people are relying on currently are going to exhaust in future.
Research shows that hydrogen fuel is an energy carrier since it does not occur naturally on earth, hence not a source of energy. Today, hydrogen fuel is made from methane as well as other fuels (Bose, 2007). Hydrogen fuel can still be produced from other sources inclusive of solar, wind, or nuclear. These sources are known to be intermittent, extremely diffuse and highly cumbersome to enhance vehicles directly. In order to develop technologies that are low in costs, high quantities and compete favorably with the traditional energy sources, there is the integration of electrolysis of water to hind hydrogen plants in place. A high number of organizations are working extremely hard to establish technologies that may effectively exhaust the potential of hydrogen energy for automobile uses. A sizeable number of vehicles are already using hydrogen in different ways. For instance, currently there is a vehicle that uses solar power through the application of a regenerative fuel cell in maintaining energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. Research shows that such vehicles have the power of converting the fuel back into the water in order to release the solar energy.
The production of hydrogen vehicles and some other automobiles are increasingly developing currently by various producers. Hydrogen is gaining high popularity among the users of nature given the fact that hydrogen is free from emission. In most cases, hydrogen powered vehicles employ hydrogen as the best catalyst to establish electric energy. In such cases, reactive fuel applies hydrogen to produce electricity that is used in providing power to the vehicle. In these vehicles, the chemical energy of hydrogen is changed to mechanical energy either through combustion or electrochemical conversion in a fuel cell.
According to some literature reviews, there are different types of fuel cells where some cells are common to all. These involve the anode, electrolyte and catalyst which make the composite structure of fuel cells. According to the research, component of the anode is the negative point, whereas the cathode is the positive point of cell. Electrolyte is made from the solid polymer while the catalyst in the cell is made of platinum. In most cases, every component in the hydrogen powered vehicles has its own function which it plays because it is allocated a specific task. Hydrogen is put into the anode of the cell as the first step while the oxygen is provided by the atmosphere through the cathode. In addition, the anode through the assistance of the catalyst to separate the hydrogen cells and remove electrons from it, hence makes the electrons to be passed to a different external circuit. This make sit easy to form an electric current. Therefore, through the electric current produced, the vehicle is able to move forward. As a result the hydrogen cells devoid of electrons and the electrons that were transferred to the outside circuit are brought back in order to combine with oxygen. Depending on the reaction made by the catalyst between the two components, there is the formation of water. Moreover, there is the arrangement of cells in a certain pattern in order to enhance the energy that is needed so as to power a hydrogen vehicle.
Further research shows that in most hydrogen powered vehicles, hydrogen is combusted in engines in the same way that gasoline is done in traditional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (Padro, 2000). This makes the engine to function in a traditional manner, although there is a small modification in fuel storage and engine body. These engines are developed in away that lead to the burn of hydrogen to provide energy, hence not producing any dangerous gases. According to the studies, each invention and discovery creates a step near to a new and advanced technology that makes the work relatively easier. Thus, various researchers are dealing and working extremely hard to make hydrogen the effective and efficient fuel of the future. The main intention of such innovations is to produce environmental friendly hydrogen powered vehicles that could later replace gas powered vehicles.
In most cases, hydrogen is known to be a sensitive component particularly to auto ignition and backfires. The high temperatures produced by the combustion of hydrogen create an efficient engine, although may produce some nitrogen oxides, as well as water vapor. Therefore, due to the combustion properties of hydrogen vehicles, there is the possibility of hydrogen to power a traditional internal combustion engine as long as some more advanced modifications are made. This is in order to prevent flashbacks toward the usage and choosing the necessary materials for hydrogen. Researchers reveal that it is difficult for such engines to emit carbon dioxide, but instead it produces only vapour and a sizable amount of nitrogen oxides as by products of combustion.
Because, hydrogen powered vehicles are enhanced by a fuel cell, such fuel based engine are mostly noiseless, do not produce pollutants, have a significant, long autonomy and a short refueling time compared to battery charging powered electric vehicles. When the vehicle is idle and may be held on jam it does not use energy and usees less gas at a significantly lower speed. Therefore, this implies that hydrogen powered vehicles are extremely economical and they provide a considerable number of green benefits. This is because even a small rise in the fuel emissions creates a tremendous difference in the entire life of the vehicle. A hydrogen powered vehicle reduces emissions by 20 to 30 percent over the most fuel efficient gas powered models (Adams, 2005). This, thus, shows the safety and effectiveness of the hydrogen powered vehicles. For instance, such vehicles have ample mileage, however, a person may save even more through the usage of the same kind of driving habits that provide the driver better mileage.
The whole country or the world turning to vehicles powered by hydrogen fuels instead of fossil fuels will automatically offer a considerable benefit both environmentally and health wise. The recent research shows that converting all vehicles in society to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could result into improved air quality, health and climate significantly. This is because there will be the elimination of vehicle exhaust. For instance, studies show that wind and natural gas are excellent providers of the extreme potential of health benefits and, thus, could help to save a substantial number of the lives of people annually. The best benefit to the climate includes the wind which leads to the production of hydrogen through the wind electrolysis according to the current studies.
The above literature reviews have made a significant contribution to this research through the provision of the necessary information required in completion of the research. For instance, through such literature reviews, there is relevant information that shows how the new technology of using hydrogen in vehicles is quite appealing to the people because of the benefits it provides. For instance, the hydrogen powered vehicles providemeans of making power extremely efficient and with less pollution. The studies also provided information concerning an electrochemical energy conversion device that is crucial in transforming the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, hence, producing electricity in the process. In normal circumstances, a battery involves all its chemicals stored inside and it changes those chemicals into electricity. This implies that the battery may need a recharge or be thrown out once it dies. However, with the fuel cell, chemicals are continuously flowing into the cell and this makes it to last longer without dying. The reviews, thus, helped in building the research because through reading such literature, the research was able to be accomplished. For instance, it was revealed that hydrogen vehicles use hydrogen as the foremost source of power for movement.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Literature Review
The strength of the above literature review was shown through the abundance of the information they offered throughout the research process. For instance, the research demonstrated that through the use of hydrogen in vehicles, there will be a reduced burning of increasingly limited petroleum reserves to power the vehicle. In such cases, a hydrogen internal combustion engine would be free from pollution and there will be no carbon emissions related to gasoline powered internal combustion engines. Apart from internal combustion powered vehicles, hydrogen can be employed to power vehicles through a fuel cell. This helps in separating one electron in a hydrogen element from a proton and applies the electronic to emit a stream of electricity. In addition, the literature was legitimate because it explained that fuel cells do not need fossil fuel to function, thus no pollution produced, hence making them the best option for internal combustion engine as the energy sources for the vehicles of the twenty first century.
However, the literature reviews had some weaknesses that did not provide or make the best contribution to the research. For instance, some literature sourses did not have the significant information concerning the topic of the study.
Results of the Study
The results show that information concerning the hydrogen powered vehicles is known and a considerable number of manufacturers are moving toward the production of such new advanced technologies. In addition, the research shows that the use of fossil fuels like petroleum and coal are the remains of the past buried beneath the earth’s surface many years ago. This implies that hydrogen powered vehicles have already found their way in the world. Therefore, through this research, relevant information concerning hydrogen powered vehicles is clearly explained.
Discussion of the Results
From the above research, the twenty first century is known to be a time of transformation because it will see the end of the widespread application of fossil fuels. The research shows that the use of fossil fuels like petroleum and coal are the remains of the past buried beneath the earth’s surface many years ago. This implies that hydrogen powered vehicles have already found their way in the world. This is because hydrogen is the most element that is in excess on the earth, hence hydrogen powered vehicles would make the limelight in the future (United Nations Environment Program, 2006). Although, hydrogen vehicles are not yet available in the market for use by the consumers, a good number of producers are showing of their idea cars and prototypes to get consumers interested about the coming years. Therefore, as a result of research, information concerning the hydrogen powered vehicles is known and a considerable number of manufacturers is moving toward the production of such new advanced technologies. This is because they are affordable in terms of energy use, they are environmentally conducive and are safe. However, the main challenge for such new technologies includes the establishment of less expensive technology and a refueling infrastructure to meet the consumers’ needs. Therefore, the research is a confirmation of the previous studies concerning hydrogen powered vehicles where the inventions of such vehicles have been proved and most producers are working towards meeting the demands of people in all areas.
Through the study of hydrogen powered vehicles, a significant number of lessons or issues was learnt. For instance, through the research, it was revealed that hydrogen powered vehicles applies hydrogen as fuel for motive power and it has shown to be the perfect option for fuel source basing on the fact that fossil fuels on which most people are relying on currently are going to exhaust in future. A sizeable number of vehicles are already using hydrogen in different ways. For instance, currently there is a vehicle that uses solar power through the application of a regenerative fuel cell in maintaining energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. Each invention and discovery creates a step near to new and advanced technology that makes the work relatively easier. Thus, various researchers are dealing and working extremely hard to make hydrogen the effective and efficient fuel of the future. In most cases, hydrogen powered vehicles employ hydrogen as the best catalyst to establish electric energy. In such cases, reactive fuel applies hydrogen to produce electricity that is used in providing power to the vehicle. In these vehicles the chemical energy of hydrogen is changed to mechanical energy either through combustion or electrochemical conversion in a fuel cell. Therefore, this implies that hydrogen powered vehicles are extremely economical and they provide a considerable number of green benefits. This is because even a small rise in the fuel emissions creates a big difference in the entire life of the vehicle. Therefore, from the above discussion, hydrogen powered vehicles are the best way to go for anyone intending to own a vehicle. This is because of the significant benefits that come with it just as discussed above. However, the study did not provide enough information concerning the negative issues of using the hydrogen powered vehicles. Therefore, future researches need to take that in mind seriously. Lack of inadequate information on the negative side of the hydrogen powered vehicles is the main weaknesses the study encountered. Nevertheless, the study showed its strength in discussion the most relevant issues concerning the topic such as the benefits and what is meant by the hydrogen powered vehicle, as well as how it works. The study could, therefore, be applied or used to create awareness among people in the society in the need to use such vehicles as a way of meeting going up to standard at present and future generations. This is because hydrogen powered vehicles promote a green environment free from pollution from vehicles.