Issues related to global warming have been a focus of attention as well as debate among the leaders on an international standard, the representatives of the industries as well as the environmentalists. There has however been a potent consensus among scientific community to the effect that greenhouse gas emission is in realistic a phenomena in addition the contribution of the humans to the addition of greenhouse gases concentration in as far as the atmosphere is concerned. There is a wide gap of information that is yet unclear with regard to the everlasting consequences that result from the anthropogenic activities with respect to the climate. Greenhouse gases which include the water vapor, the carbon dioxide, the nitrous oxide, the gas methane in addition to chlorofluorocarbons1, as well as ozone are responsible for trapping the atmospheric heat which is supposed to be allowed a chance of radiating back and disappear in to the atmosphere (European Union).
It is also however notable that the activities of the humans are responsible for the cause of the escalation of the levels of the atmospheric gases which is a real cause of the enhancement of the greenhouse effect that results top the trapping of more heat. This is a clear indication of the occurrence of climate warming. The plausibility that is associated with the climate change that s induced by the activities of the humans has been at the center of interest of a task force of the united nations called “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” that has reported a discernable influence of the humans. This has the implication that “Environmental Protection Agency” has given a report to the effect that the hottest century is 20th after 1000 years (Article, 2005).
It is not yet clear as to the right extent that the change in climate is anticipated to extend to, the extents of the contribution of the activities of man to the escalation of the effects of greenhouse as well as the anticipated long term effects brought about by global warming shall impact on the ecosystem, the species, their distribution as well as the civilization of man. The estimates of the scientists with regard the entire surface warming that is anticipated in the course of the coming century as an average on an international scale is in the range of between 1.8 – 6.3 degrees F. as compared to the average changes in temperature that was reported in 1816 which was an infamous “Year Without Summer” that was associated with a crop failure in the context of the entire world (European Union, 2002).
The need for a safer environment has necessitated the action of the international community. This has been achieved in one way through the introduction and implementation of the Kyoto Protocol This has the reference to a set of rules to “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” the UNFCCC or the FCCC. The intention of the protocol is the mitigation of global warming. UNFCCC is a treaty of international capacity that is charged with the responsibilities of addressing the environmental issues with the intention of the achievement of "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would minimize dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." (Article, 2005).
The initial adoption of the protocol took place in Kyoto in Japan in 1997 December and was effected in 2005. At the end of 2009 there were 187 states that had signed as well as ratified to the protocol. According to the specifications of the Kyoto protocol the 37 “Annex countries” which has the implications of the industrialized countries have made a commitment towards the reduction of the emission of the greenhouse gases, the GGG. The gases under this category include carbon dioxide, the methane gas, nitrous oxide, the sulphur hexafluoride in addition to two other categories of gases (hydro fluorocarbons as well as per fluorocarbons) that they produce. These groups of countries have an agreement relating to the reduction of collective emission of the greenhouse gases by a percentage of 5.2 based on the level of 1990 (Article, 2005).The limits of emission are exclusive of the international emissions aviation in addition to shipping but the industrial gases are taken in to consideration in this respect.
The protocol gives an allowance for a number of flexible mechanisms like the emission trading, “clean development mechanism”, the CDM, in addition to the joint implementation for the purpose of facilitating the annex countries in the achievement of the limitations of the emissions of greenhouse gases that is achieved through buying of the reduction credits of GHG from other places with the application of projects of financial exchanges that are responsible for the reduction of emissions in the context of the countries that do not fall under the annex category from the rest of the annex 1 or from the annex 1 countries having the advantages of excess allowances.
Every country in the annex 1 has a requirement of submitting a report on annual basis regarding the inventories of the entire anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gases based on the sources in addition to the removals out of the sinks from the UNFCCC as well as the Kyoto Protocol. The countries are also required to nominate a "designated national authority" who is a person with the responsibilities of creating as well as managing the inventory of the greenhouse gases. The Countries in this catetegor are “Japan, Germany, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain in addition to others that are responsible for the active promotion of the carbon funds of the governments, the support on the carbon funds on a multilateral ground with the intention of buying the carbon credits that are obtained from the countries in the non-annex 1 category who have been identified to have a close working relationships with principal utility, energy, oil as well as gas in addition to the conglomerates of chemicals in the acquisition of certificates of greenhouse gases in a manner that is cheap (Wigley, 143-87).
The most updated efforts on an international context are addressing the issues that are related to greenhouse effects rests on the Kyoto protocol. This is an accord of the industrialized countries word wide with a common goal of the reduction of the emissions of the most notable greenhouse gases that numbers six over a specified time period. On ratification of the treaty by the United States congress, it creates the requirements of the nation towards the reduction of the green house gas emissions by a factor of up to 7% based on the level that were in record in 1990 in the period 2008 to 2012. (Wigley, 143-87). The “Congressional Research Service Report, Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much From What Baseline” (1998) gives a description of Kyoto protocol with special emphasis on energy, economic as well as the sequestration variables of carbon that are linked with the implementation of the protocol in as far as the United States is concerned.
In a virtual way all the countries that are in the category of the annex 1 have introduced a national authority that has been designated for the sake of the management of the Kyoto protocol with specific interests in the processes of the CDM that are responsible for the determination of the most appropriate projects of the GHG that must be proposed due to the issue of being accredited by the executive board of the CDM (Article, 2005).