The research is a quantitative study because it has used the systematic empirical investigation of phenomena, quantitative properties and their relationships. The study has also developed and   employed theories, mathematical models and hypothesis about the above phenomena. The research study is quantitative because it has used measurement to provide fundamental connection between mathematical expressions and empirical observations of quantitative relations (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.532).

Introduction/ Problem statement

The Investigator has well introduced the study in the second paragraph by first of all highlighting the incidence of skin cancer which has had high prevalence in the United States of America. The researcher has clearly pointed out in the introduction part that Skin cancer is now an epidemic in the United States because by the year 2007, cases of malignant melanoma that were diagnosed stood at 59, 940  while projected deaths stood at 8,110. It is such figures that the researcher makes the reader to be aware of the gravity of the problem the researcher is researching on (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.532).  .

Research questions

The Investigator has presented the purpose of his study well by clearly pointing out that the goal of the paper is to examine the capability of pone body image theory, the theory of tripartite in addition to other selected constructs obtained from the health theories behavior in order to predict indoor tanning and sunbathing within a period of six months of investigations.  The significance or importance of the problem is well discussed since the investigator, in his research, seeks to determine the tripartite theory of application and image to modeling Ultra Violet (UV) exposure.  

The investigator clearly provides a sense of his research study by clearly associating it with research done by other people to make his study more genuine and relevant. For instance, the investigator notes that the tripartite theory has been given empirical support as far as research in the context of eating disorder is concerned. The major research problem identified in the study was why the incidence of skin cancers had reached epidemic levels in the United States of America.

The key variables and research questions that have to be examined in the study have been well identified by the investigator.  For instance, the investigator has clearly examined the socio cultural influences, intentions to UV exposure and tan appearance attitudes as major variables in the research study.  The research study by the investigator therefore has a greater potential of helping to solve the problem of UV exposure. The investigator , for instance, in page 533 notes that the study would be useful in investigating the relationship between relevant variables like intentions to exposure to UV, specified tan appearance behaviors or attitudes  and socio cultural influences .  The research study is therefore capable of solving skin cancer, which is a problem that is facing personnel in the clinical practice (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.533).  .

Literature Review

The literature review follows a logical arrangement that leads to a critical review of conflicting and supporting previous works in that the investigator notes several studies which have revealed a great relationship between intentions/ behaviors and appearance motives.  The investigator, on the other side, gives an example of another conflicting study which attempted to distinguish between the internalization and awareness of socio-cultural influences when it came to wordings of items. The investigator points out that unfortunately, this distinction was not supported by the factor analysis and hence the conflict between the other studies (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.533).  .

The investigator's current research study is well related with other previous studies concerning the current problem statement. The investigator clearly notes the challenges faced by both the supporting and conflicting studies on this problem statement and therefore clearly bringing the study of the problem statement to the recent and previous studies.  The investigator has well illustrated in his study, the various gaps that exist in the literature of the previous study and therefore pointed out the need for carrying out the present research study. For example, the investigator noted that a more comprehensive model that includes all constructs and variables has never been tested, and therefore the need for the current studies (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.533).  

The investigator points out the major limitation of past research in which the models which were examining the relationship between predictors and intentions were found to be fir without comprising the corresponding behavior and in cases where there was inclusion of behavior, then its link with intentions was separately evaluated from the predictors of intentions. The investigator's research study therefore seeks to preclude a theory of planned behavior through a theory of comprehensive test as applied to exposure to UV.  The researcher's current study therefore sought to model the constructs and its corresponding behaviors separately from a conceptual standpoint because as much as they are similar, they are somewhat different in terms of barriers and benefits (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.535).  .

Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis

In this research study, the investigator has defined the hypothesis and theoretical framework of the study. The investigator has clearly stated the theoretical ground to base the formulation of the hypothesis by stating in the study "The Theory of planned behavior, reasoned action and the role of norms". This hypothesis has been stated precisely and therefore it can easily be tested (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.536).  


The relevant concepts and variables have been operationally been defined in the research. For instance, the major variables in the research study are socio cultural influences, intentions to UV exposure and tan appearance attitudes. The design of the variables and concepts are very relevant for the hypothesis and research questions since they are very precise and clear. Methods of data collection have been sufficiently described like for instance the use of questionnaires which were completed online. The investigator used an independent sample which consisted of 80 females which resembled the primary sample in the demographic characteristics. The independent samples were then evaluated over the months of April and May through measuring the same people in the sample two times in a week (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.537).


The subjects and sampling methods have been well described by the Investigator. The investigator In this research study the subjects were a sample of 589 females who came from the University of South Florida. Given the number of variables and design in this case study, it can be well ascertained that the sample is of sufficient size for the study. The investigator accessed participants in this sample from introductory psychology classes. Later on, the participants were accessed through phone and email for five times before they could be considered as non- responders.

There was no adequate assurance that the rights of human subjects could be protected because the samples were grouped according to their racial origin and thus this was in violation of the human rights against racial segregation.  The investigators did not also seek informed consent of the participant before the study was conducted and therefore this was a violation of human rights. The investigators did not inform the participants the purpose of the study (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.538).   

Instruments and data collection

The primary concepts and variables that were in this research study are intentions to UV exposure and specific tan appearance attitudes. There are both independent and dependent variables in the research study. Examples of independent variables in the study are the socio cultural influences like family, friends and relatives while an example of dependent variables in the research study include intentions to UV exposure and tan appearance attitudes.

The reliability and validity of the measurement instruments was not adequate because there was a large number of variables which could determine the amount of UV light the participants could be exposed to. As a result of this, only the use of more objective measures used in exposure could better be used to quantify the risk. The methods are not sufficiently described because the research study has used a lot of mathematical functions and procedures which could prove difficult for some other people with difficulties in mathematical functions to replicate the whole study (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.538).  

Data analysis:

The statistical tests that have been used in the research study have been well identified and the values are correctly depicted. The study hypotheses are correctly evaluated in the study bys use of structural equation modeling which make use of maximum projected estimates of parameters. Relevant statistics have been used in the structural equation modeling to the level of the sample size, hypotheses, the sampling method and the measurement (Hillhouse, et al, 2009.p.538).  


The major findings or results of the study was that the components in the research study could have been designed with an aim of targeting appearance objectives to tan and socio cultural influences since the current appearance based interventions only targeted reasons of not tanning. The research study also found out that   the reduction of positive valuation of any tan appearance could be realized by a means of a cognitive dissonance in which individuals who tan are requested to challenge the idealization of tan appearances.

The findings fit with the original research objective which sought to examine models which prospectively predicted indoor tanning and sunbathing behaviors through the use of interrelations and constructs. The figures and tables in this research study clearly illuminated the presentation of results and therefore made it easy for a mathematically knowledgeable individual to analyze the quantitative information represented in the tables and figures.   


The conclusions made in the research study are based on the results obtained from the hypothesis and they are well related. The conclusion in this research study has noted exclusive use of only female college students of Caucasian origin as a limitation which cannot enable the findings to be generalized to a wider generation.  The research study was also not more inclusive of ethnicity, age, level of education and gender, sampling procedures which should be put in sue in future studies.  Another limitation the relationship among different constructs in the research study was based on assumed causal relationships.  

Future studies should therefore involve experimental studies which could investigate the relationship between UV exposure variables and psychological constructs.  The risk of skin cancer being modeled on the frequency of exposure was also a limitation in the study.  Recommendations for future research have been well noted in the conclusion which should aim at working with an aim of developing a good understanding and preventing characters which place individuals at risk of having skin cancer.

The research study clearly meets the criterion for scientific merit because of the way it was conducted. However, the study does not meet the criterion of replicability because of the many complicated mathematical calculations which may hinder some people from replicating it. The research study is relevant to practice and it is feasible for implementation by health professionals because of the effort done to test different hypothesis. All in all the benefits of the research study outweighed the risks because at the end of the research, no causalities were reported.

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