Development is a word with diverse definations.It refers to process and intention, means and goals. Development is either a process or an intension Heinz Arndt (1987), Explains "development as an immanent process, which creates the new by destroying the old", Related to a plant. Reports indicate that this conceptualization is a pre-modern model rooted in ancient Greek. Delay and destruction acknowledged as integral parts in the cycle of development. Another perception on Development "assumes that is possible to act in the name of development, to give order to the process of development so as to avoid, stop, or at least alleviate its negative dimensions". Development is no longer cyclical and immanent, it however "come to present the potential and possibility for a linear movement of human improvement" (Cowen and Shenton 1996:57).It is argued that the state foresters development by checking all conflicting processes of development (Schech and Haggis)
Throughout my analysis of Development theories l opted for the Social Development theory, defined as the process of organizing activities and human energies at a higher level towards achieving greater results. Development optimally utilizes human potential. However, this theory remains a trial and error move towards defining what defining development. Reports indicate its use in some European countries, Asia and African towards establishing the relationship for the income disparities between the least developed and the more developed countries, environmental depletion, crime and violence and the distressing relationship in the rise in income. A great reflection of humanity vigorous purse of a process with lack of knowledge needed to effectively govern and guide it (Jacobs and Cleveland).
A study by Diamond on Guns, Germs and Steel suggest that since the 1500, European countries suggest that the world suspended on a string controlled by Guns, Germs and Steel. Using science Diamond establishes that link between development and resources. His methodology is based on three key elements; the population density, farming, innovation and domestication of Animals.
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Diamond puts the under development of Asian and African countries to the dominance by the Western countries. Due to Geographical alignment on the Globe instead of social and Biological supremacy. Diamond reports that Western civilization boosted by the abundance of domestic table animals, food crops and its geography that boosted migration of skilled personnel through out the western world. The "horizontal orientation of axes" of America as opposed to African countries has enabled the domestication of Animals, growth of food crops and abundance for the polulation.the resultant fact is dominance of the other worlds thus the under development(Diamond).
Diamond further argues that population is yet another factor that leads to under development. Through his study in New Guinea, it is clear that dominance in the population backed up by abundant natural resources .Western world exploit their resources and subsequently develop into conquering other cultures and civilizations. Diamond called it "Dumb luck" (Diamond).
As opposed to Diamond, other scholars have argued other factors like religion, other cultural factors i.e. completion, Cohesion and the like. Religious, Weltanschauuing and Culture play a significant role in explaining the reason for under development because of civilization by the Western world .This scholars have greatly criticized the "dumb luck" theory (Diamond).
Like Diamond however other scholar agree with Diamond other the geographical aspect as pertaining to development and civilization of the western world over Africa and Asia.(Diamond) In conclusion, several theories have tried to explain development and under development disparities between European countries and Africa and Asia. Nevertheless, the most remarkable of all is Diamond's "dumb luck" theory. It links population, geographical dominance of position of Western countries to the dominance in civilization and development.
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