|← Women in the Sex Industry and Drug Use||The Discussion Questions →|
The war over religion in the seventeenth century not only left bitter memories in most of the European countries, but it also ruined and weakened the economies of governments. In response to this, many people sought to impose order on the turbulent world through a number of ways. For instance, the quest for political stability stimulated the development of the rival state building systems, absolutism and constitutionalism. Despite of the differences between the two systems, the rulers in both centralized powers. They expanded bureaucracies through casting a wider net over their subjects through the expansion of the state power, such as the resistance, borne fruitless. The sinews of the state government extended beyond Europe and the European nations, which continued their quest for land, prestige and treasures in the new world.
The seventeenth century was turbulent in England, where Protestants, Catholics, and politicians vied for power, due to the indictment of the traditional political thinking. The natural state of the humans was violent and prone to war during this period. They did not care where the authority vested, since what mattered was the gain of power from the Soviet Union. The modern world is shaped by the laws and rules which govern groups of people. People live in Commonwealth rules and legislature with the aim of preserving their governments and avoiding the conditions of war (Domat, 1829). The best way to connect common powers is to confer all the strengths under a single assembly of men, which reduces the will of plural voices. It also reduces the chances of individuals injuring each other, thereby curing all of them against violence and destruction, and fosters common peace. This is because they are affiliated to the common covenant which binds all of them to obedience and to the needs of each of the individual member within the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth is instituted by multitudes of men who agree to the covenant. Each group of individuals is given the opportunity to select their representatives to the Commonwealth assembly. This assembly will set up rules and legislations, which will be to the advantage of all the parties within the Commonwealth. Commonwealth acts to the mutual benefits of a majority of people (Hobbes, 1651).
Compare and contrast state building in the early modern world
The state building in the modern world was dependent on the men who lived through the time. These men loved liberty and dominion over others, and, therefore, their focus was on their own preservation with a more content life. Their aim was to get themselves out of their miserable conditions of war, which was a natural consequence of the passions of men and where there was no visible power to tie the men in awe and tie them through fear to the requirements of their covenants.
The only example useful for the erection of the common power was so as to help them be in a position to defend themselves against the invasion of foreign powers, as well as the injuries of one another. This cures the needs of their own industries, and, as Locke puts it, “the fruits of the earth they may nourish and live contented lives” (Locke, 1952). The governments are essential for convening the powers to an individual so as to assemble the men bearing this to the will of all the other men. The government are more than a unity of few individuals (Locke, 1952). It is a power governing different groups of people to achieving their goals in life.
There is some importance of the order in the governments. An orderly state prospers and it influences the lives of a majority of people. All people know that societies form a body each person being its member. For this reason, it is crucial to identify and seek and determine the duties of the people and govern the governments. God has allocated all the people to different groups in society, where they serve and obey faithfully to the calling of God.
Consider different forms and theories of government
A political power has the right to consider all the state of perfect freedom to order and rule all the actions and protect their possessions through appropriate means. Though the earth and all the creatures are a man has properties, no one has the right over another individual. All people have the rights over the labour of their bodies. The labour is the property of the laborer, and no man has a right over it, and there is enough left to use for the goodness of others. Though it is a state liberty, the state has controllable liberty to dispose the possessions of an individual. However, no individual has a right to destroy himself or any of the creatures in his possessions (Locke, 1952).
The state of nature has natural laws, which govern all people and the entire creation. Every person has the right to preserve himself and not commit suicide. God, who gave men the world, gave them the reason to use the world bestowed to them for the advantage of life conveniences. All the things on the Earth are meant to support men and comfort them, so as to provide nourishment, and no one in the world has the right to make other individuals their slaves. The freedom of existence and the dominion to control the other creatures in the world are the powers bestowed to all the human beings in the world.
The leaders within the government have the power to exercise over their subjects. However, this power needs to be used for the good of everyone who is a subject to it. Men are entitled to make laws, and the rules set by the laws should not be directed at the destruction of other peoples’ interests. The rules and laws have to be directed at satisfying the ambitions of the minority. Lack of laws sets the onset of tyranny, where the laws are used for the harm of others. If an individual uses power excessively to an extent bigger than it was allocated to him by the law and uses forceful powers to oppress the minority, he invades in the other person’s rights.
The main reasons why men set laws governing their property and choose to authorize legislative set are guarding and defending the properties of all the individuals in the society. This is limited for the power, which has a moderate dominion over every member of the society. God is against force and violence, and, therefore, whoever applies force to fulfil their ambitions through instilling fear, corruption to the minorities, commits transgression against other people in the society (Domat, 1829).
How and why these theories and governments exist
The theories of government exist to ascertain that all individuals are equal. Thus, the rules do not make any individual a subject of other people. However, with natural equality, people within the society are differentiated by several factors, such as the difference in status, forging relationships and dependencies. These relationships and dependencies determine the various duties of each of individuals to the government.
The second theory defines the government as a distinct group of persons arising from different employments, which is one of the requirements of the society, uniting all these people to a body. Each individual from different groups in the society is its member. God made a man dependent on help and assistance of others due to the existence of various needs in society. For instance, the first distinction of the government comes through the differences in powers bestowed to people with the effort to create harmony in the society. In addition, governments exist to connect common powers and to confer all the strengths and powers under a single assembly of men, which reduces the will of plural voices. It also reduces the chances of individuals injuring each other, thereby preventing violence and destruction and fostering common peace.
How they compare with other kingdoms or countries
What alienates people from others is their subjection due to the association between parents and children. This is the first kind of government within families; children are obliged to obey their parents. The second dysfunctional government arises from the differences in employment requirements in a society which unites all the people to one body, which each individual is a member. In addition, God made each person dependent on the help of others. To achieve this, Gods has differentiated the status of the different people in the government to satisfy the needs assigned to different people and the places where they should function. Because of the independent employments and conditions it is necessary to unite all the society, which consists of different employees. It is, therefore, necessary to unite and govern the body created through various employments. These employments are responsible for maintaining the relationships that give public benefits to different functions, which correspond to the satisfaction of each person’s needs.
The consequences of the governmental principles are seen due to the rationale that not all people do the same work. Some people commit criminal activities. For the sake of maintaining order in the society, it is necessary to repress all the injustices. This can only be achieved through the authority given to particular persons, and not all the people. In this case, the necessity to govern people is equal to nature, which distinguishes other creatures from other people, since God allocates them in accordance to their positions and differences in professions. In addition, the government arises from the will of God, because God is the one who assigns all individuals with different duties and obligations (Hobbes, 1651). Through his calling, he commands all the people to be obedient and makes duties for all the people. He prescribes the proper working conditions for each duty and assigns a status in accordance with different ranks respectively. The orders assigned to different functions correspond to individuals’ position in life.
Failure to adhere to these principles, due to the failure of some people to perform their duties, ends up in committing injustices by some people. For the sake of keeping order in the society, all forms of injustices have to be repressed. This can only be possible through delegating the authority to some people within the group. In this way, all groups of people are equal under the rule of a sovereign government, through which all the authority is derived from God who is its primary representative.