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1. The purpose of this study was to examine the interpersonal working values of leaders in work settings and to determine the influence of such variables on their consequential behavior. Further, this was conducted to better understand the role of values when it comes to organizational efficiency and harmony.

2. The study's intent was primarily focused on the determination of working values on managerial positions and how these values or variables become a significant ingredient in shaping their organization.

3. The study was conducted because of the apparent resignations among managers in different organizations and club wherein this study has an aim to address the probable reasons of these resignations and how these instances can be correlated to the working values of the manager and likewise to gusset the studies involving the importance of the coherence between the working values of the person involved and the values of the entire organization in general. Further, to also formulate a set of behavioral standards as bases for employment.  

4. The literature proposed/identified was basically focused on Bale's work which infuses or relate interpersonal values with interpersonal behaviors wherein he interprets that values are human's lens via which the person involved analyzes and interprets what he or she sees and experiences.  

5. Previous studies have concluded that values are very important in organizations. Every person has his own values and interpretations and somehow these values maybe incongruent with the values of the organization itself resulting to the conclusion that determining values which are most likely the bases of our behaviors is very important for an organization.

6. The research questions include: Do manager values and certain demographic variables of interest predict U-D, P-N and F-B manager behavior? Does working values of managers affect the condition of the whole organization?


1. The research design included an integrated field theory of social psychology developed by Bales in measuring and investigating managerial work values and behavior. There was an attempt to explain the behavior in the basis of social interaction.

2. The variables were the values and behavior.

3. The sample included 300 employees as respondents on how they see the values of their bosses influence the behavior of the entire organization.

4. The researchers developed a theory or a model of how the three dimensions of person's working values be related with each other and how each dimension influence the other inversely or positively.

5. Data were analyzed how?  The data gathered were analyzed through the three-dimensional schema: Upward - Downward, Positive - Negative and Forward - Backward. These three dimensions are positively or inversely proportional to each other depending on the pairing.


The main findings of this study were each dimension has an inverse or positive proportionality with each other. It has been found out that on U-P, the more a person becomes dominant he also decreases his friendly behavior and the more the submissive the person, the more friendlily he becomes. Persons who are dominant and unfriendly are instrumentally controlled and persons who are submissive and friendly become emotionally expressive. It was also found out that it is easier for an instrumentally controlled manager to move into an emotionally expressive club than the other way around.


1. The authors concluded that the study was able to obtain perception and understanding toward leader values and how these can be correlated to behavior. It also solidified the theory Bales. The study also manifested potentials of developing a model that will combine values, behavior and demographic substances.

2. How could you apply the elements of the article to you becoming an effective leader (how could this article be used to help make you a better leader)? It would help to become coherent to the values set forth by my organizations. Seen this way, I would be able to relate to my people in a harmonious way by practicing a behavior that is much more effective for a company to grow; it is more on conformity.

3. How you feel about the article (what is your reaction to the article-do you agree with it or not and why)? The first time I read the article, I was already convinced. True enough, our values really affect our behaviors in any occasion or in any field of work. I think that the article was able to explain the reasons why it is very important to understand our values and how these can affect our behaviors because it will us to adjust if there is a need for us to do so. This is a great article for me.

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