Job analysis refers to an extensive methodology which is used to gather information about the various duties, responsibilities, required skills and the surrounding environment to a particular job to find out, if it is suitable for the instigated kind of work. The process of determining the job analysis requires an extensive involvement into certain activities which include: evaluating the job responsibilities of the existing employees, conducting a thorough on-line research with a clear purpose of reviewing the sample jobs which emphasize on jobs of a similar nature, drawing attention into the various duties and responsibilities which will be accomplished by the incumbent employee and lastly taking time to put forth the most favorable results which will be expected from the employee filling the position, thereby advertised (Jelly, 2008).
It should be noted that a job analysis is conducted with the purpose of identifying the various competencies which are linked directly to the performance on the job. In doing so, the individual mandated with the responsibility of conducting the task is expected to understand that there is a distinct relationship between the various tasks, as stipulated in the requirements, as well as the competencies which will be required to conduct the tasks successfully.
There are various methods used in analyzing the specific job groups. These job analysis methods include: observation, interview and the use of questionnaires. In this particular assignment the task will involve choosing the most suitable methodology which will be used in evaluating employees in the corporate barber and hair shop. It is wise to note that in this kind of job the employee is expected to be productive in all aspects, in order to attain the required production target of the company as a whole (Jelly, 2008). Employees are, therefore, expected to possess the ability to measuring the amount of time they will take to finish a particular work. In observation, various activities and behavior of the employees are the main parameters which are used either independently or as combination.
A job analysis conducted in this industry involves the measurement of both time and motion, and therefore, the best methodology to deploy is definitely the observation method. There are three types of job analysis techniques which are founded on the observation methodology. The three types of observation methodologies include: (i) direct observation, (ii) work method analysis and (iii) the critical incident technique (Jelly, 2008). In this business type, the observer will definitely use a mixture of all the three techniques for the purpose of achieving the desired results.
In direct observation, the person mandated to perform the analysis of the employees in the barber and hair shop is expected to stand aloof and observe the various activities of the different employees, as they conduct their routines. Analysts are expected to take notes on each and every relevant observation they make concerning individual employees.
The observer, or rather the analyst, is expected to note down the general observations using a more generalized criteria or follow a well-structured analysis report for which employees’ conducts are noted down as comments (Jelly, 2008). This technique is considered to be the most favorable for the corporate barber and hair shop, since it incorporates various elements of the working employee who in this case is either a barber or a hair stylist.
The observer takes into account the elements which are concerned with the accomplishments of the worker, the equipment used in these line of duty may vary from shaving machine to the application of spirits and after-shave deodorants, and the suitability of the working environment, so that the observer notes down the reactions depicted by different clients after receiving the service from the shop. As much as the technique is easy to implement, its validity is minimized by its incapability to draw relevant attention to the mental aspect of the barber or hair stylist in that matter. These mental aspects include the processes concerned with decision-making and organizing. Another limitation to this technique is the fact that it produces the minimal amount of information which relates to individual requirements for the job. This is difficult to acquaint with, since it is almost impossible to determine personal information using the observable facts.
In work method analysis, the observer is required to undertake a rather sophisticated approach to determine the amount of time the barber or the hair stylist in the shop takes to finish a given task, which in this case includes the shaving or making hair of the customers. Since the tasks involved in this profession are both manual and repetitive in nature, the observer is expected to be well-versed with knowledge of measuring of time and motion (Jelly, 2008).
The complexity of this technique increases especially when the observer makes use of tools, such as a stopwatch to determine the amount of time a barber or a hair stylist takes to perform the specific duties which constitute the part of whole job (Jelly, 2008). It should be noted that in this technique, the whole job is sub-divided into smaller measurable components, so that a barber or a hair stylist is evaluated on the time he or she uses to either shave or make the hair. In case of shaving, the process is broken down into the application of various products before shaving, the shaving itself and the after-shave services.
In case of hair make-ups, the job is broken down into, washing, the service itself, which may include plaiting or weaving in that matter, and lastly, the application of hair nourishments on the customer’s hair. During the determination of performance using motion and micro-motion, the approach involves the setting up of films which are used to discover the acceptable level of accomplishing tasks, and also in setting standards of the amount of time taken to complete the certain tasks. Since the pay of the barbers and the hair stylists is issued in terms of commissions, this approach will be useful in determining the pay rates of the employees at work, so that the hard-working employees receive the extra bonuses.
In the last technique, the critical incident technique, information pertaining to each critical incident is put in writing. This information involves determining the causes of the incident at hand, and the different circumstances under which they occurred, the behaviors of the employees and whether the behaviors were effective or ineffective (Jelly, 2008). The fundamentals to this technique are to determine whether employees’ behavior was retrospective or not. This approach is usually deployed by observers whose intentions are focused on determining the qualitative aspect of the job. The barber attendant or hair stylist is evaluated on the aspect that there were relevant behaviors and effective moments after completing the task.
A performance appraisal refers to a process under which worthiness of employees of a given organization is measured. In this approach, the work performance is either encouraged, or motivated by way of rewarding, in accordance with the specific performances (Dutra, 2005). The process of determining this fundamental value can either be formal or informal in that matter. This process is usually concerned with the Human Resource department of the organization which in many cases stipulates the structures, frameworks and procedures to be used in assessing the performance appraisal. The major significance of this organization requirement is for the purposes of evaluating the employees’ overall performance, there individualistic future potentials within the scope of the company, and the promotions and rewards which the human resource is to issue for the purpose of appreciating the hard work on the part of barbers and hair stylists.
According to the open learning world (2011), there are various performance appraisal evaluation methods which are used to determine the value of employees to the organization as a whole. In a corporate barber and hair stylist shop, the performance appraisal technique is narrowed down to specific methods. These methods are explained as below: Essay Evaluation method in when the information about the employee is analyzed and evaluated. Analysts in this approach are made put forth the strong, as well as the weak, elements of employees’ behavior. The analysts make sure that they determine the following parameters before proclaiming the final judgment. This parameters are: (I) the comprehension of the job by either the barber or hair stylist, (II) the efforts made by the employee to understand the stipulated company’s policies and objectives, (III) both the mind-set and perception of the employee towards the fellow employees and customers at large, (IV) the employee’s abilities to control, plan and organize in general.
With the aforementioned parameters, analysts are positioned in a better place to determine whether the employees are capable of handling customers in a professional manner, whether they understand that they are expected to direct their particular visions and objectives in order to match the overall objective of the organization as a whole. This methodology also allows analysts to determine whether the employees possess not only the willingness, but also the capability to perform the controlling and planning of their specific duties and responsibilities, as required by the management of the organization.
However, there are some limitations which are attributed to this methodology which include: (I) it is highly prejudiced in the sense that the analyst may be biased, especially with employees who pretend for the purpose of receiving the major boost they might be looking for. (II) It is somehow difficult for some analysts to write effective performance appraisal reports. The skills required in writing performances is technical in nature, and analysts may find it difficult to write reports which use specific and evaluating language. It is argued that nowadays, it will be almost impossible for organizations to find the qualified kind of personnel to lead the task of evaluating employees by the way of noting down the performances. (III) The skill of writing appraisal reports is time consuming, thus, it will require analysts to make ample time for the purpose of preparing the reports at hand. Reports which have been written hurriedly may distort the purpose for which they were intended, while those reports which take more time to write may be costly to the barber and hair stylist shop in the sense that it’s economic value will be minimized greatly.
The other method which can be used by the organization of the barber and hair shop is the Graphic Rating Scale. This method is the most popular methodology used by managements to evaluate the performance of employees during their daily routines. In this approach, a printed form is used for the determination process, as it evaluates both the quantity and quality of work done. Rating scales may be customized by the organization to include the traits which it considers appropriate for barbers and hair stylists to acquire altogether. Traits, such as attitude, dependability and cooperation are taken into consideration, and their effectiveness rated as required by the organization. It is through this method that existing gaps in technical professional knowledge within employees are exposed as they occur; hence, the management is placed in a better position to agree on the worthiness of each and every employee.
Major setbacks linked to this methodology include the fact that the reported performance may be arbitrary, while the rating defined as biased, since the parameters used in formulating the performance are completely difficult to quantify. Another disadvantage is the fact that the characteristics used in determining the performance of the employees are equally significant, hence, analysts of performances are advised never to overlook any of the aforementioned characteristics unless the whole process is termed irrelevant.