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Whether any venture is successful or not, depends on the degree to which it attains the objectives set by a person. It also depends on the degree to the objectives have been achieved. Homeland security department (NHS) was created after September eleventh in the year 2001. This was after the government, as well as, the public of the United States realized that their security was threatened by acts terrorism. The inception of the idea of existence of search an organization is believed to have originated from the ideas of bill Clinton back in 1998. This need became more eminent in the wake of terrorist attack of 2001 than before. The first objective of this government agency was to combat all the acts of terrorism within the boarders of the United States from a common front (Bontrager & Richert, 2004).
Legislative work alone can not be effective in fighting terrorism; this is according to lessons learnt in Italy. A good method of combating terrorism must work to pre empty any attempts and of planned terrorist attacks to achieve security of the public. The best fight against terrorism should not be based on legislative measures only, but also through the relations between the government and the people. The initial step in the fight against terrorism should include achieving public confidence and trust.
Although the masterminding of the September eleventh attack was made outside the boarders of America, the attacks took place in America, and that is where casualties who were innocent civilians were found. As it was stated from state house in 2002, there was a need to merge the internal and the external affairs. There was a serious need to combine the U.S foreign intelligence with an internal system; a well fledged system to stop and combat any acts of terrorism in her boarder. Moreover, there was a need to prepare for quick response incase such things occurred.
Whether the homeland security department has been successful or not is based on the aim for starting it, and its effects in ensuring public society. After the September eleventh terrorist attack in the American territory, something had to be done to prevent the future recurrence of such unfortunate moment. This was done through the centralization of all the existing sources of information. The homeland security department was one of the greatest restructuring of the government since World War II. The overview, as well as, administration of public security was put under common watch this was a crucial step of fighting the war on terrorism in the America territory from on front.
The other thing that enhanced the output of the homeland security department was the increased funding from the federal government. Before September eleven, there was information that could have been enough to secure America. The problem was there was no continuous flow of information to facilitate effective prevention, as well as, quick response. There were gaps in the flow of information based on the facts that there were many agencies with overlapping mandate and still not working under a common command (Bloom, 2007).
The creation of homeland security department could no have happened without the United States government. The government has played a crucial role in ensuring that this department functions as intended. The homeland security department was elevated to the congress level meaning its functions training and findings are approved by the congress. The funding, as well as, facilitation of functions of this large, and highly crucial department in the United States cannot effectively be carried out by any single state. The provision of security, as well as, protection of all Americans within her boarder needs management, and oversight that is well above each individual state. Therefore, the coordination of the activities of homeland security department by the federal government was essential and warranted.
The United States patriot act had required all main buildings, and public places to be put under surveillance. This was done to enhance the safety, and the well being of all Americans. Before the homeland security act (HSA) was passed, the information provided by the surveillance systems, (from public buildings and other places) could not do much in assisting in fostering security. This was mainly because of various firewalls that existed between the several government agencies that were mandated in providing the internal security of Americans (Broughton, 2009). There was a need for an integrated information system to ensure the proper functioning of the homeland security department. The U.S congress in response to this passed various bills among them, several which ensured total information to government agencies. Among the institutions that were created to aid in acquiring the information required for homeland security is (The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, that is, DARPA).
There was a public outcry concerning the government’s ability to acquire limitless information about its citizens, and the immense potential for misuse of this information that existed in the event that this it fell on unintended hands. Such potential; threat did exist, but the incidences, as well as, occurrence could be controlled through ensuring high levels of discipline and accountability in such a sensitive system. Moreover, this potential risk of misuse of personal information would be a small price for public to pay for their security.
In funding as discussed earlier, the homeland department required adequate Funding for it to function well. The federal government understanding this has been doing the funding for the homeland security department. For instance, in a bid to ensure total information awareness, the CIA was given a start up budget of $200million to carry out its operations. This can be an enormous burden for any individual state to carry even in exchange for public safety (Gustafson, 2009).
The general public felt threatened by the role of the TIA and felt that personal data would be availed to potentially harmfully recipients. Some intellectuals and the congress did not see any serious threat presented to the public by this fact. This was even after the senate had voted to cut funding for the CIA. The congress gave the CIA the green light go proceed with its operation. In addition to that, the congress gave the CIA the mandate to apply some limited data mining technology in acquiring information that was deemed necessary. This was a strong support for the CIA by the congress, and it also occurred as support behind the homeland security department. Later on, the homeland security department was planning to roll out a program that they said would have been influential in pre emptying any terrorist attacks. This program would be called terrorist information and prevention systems, in short called TIPS. This had been designed to tract information from friends and neighbors communication and was thought to be extremely intrusive on people’s privacy. Consequently, it was not passed into an act.
The part of the homeland act that shows governments unwavering support for the homeland security department is the provisions that allow the advisory committee of the president to meet in total confidentiality and without giving a reason in order to deliberate on home land security (Davis, 2010). Although this is an infringement on public law, this shows the zealous efforts done by the federal government, and even the advisory committee of the highest office to meet in regard to the national, internal security, which is directly placed on the hands of the homeland security department. Depending on the integrity of the presidential advisory committee, as well as, other considerations, whether this group should congregate in totally confidential places to deliberate on various issues can be debated.
Another law that supports the homeland security department is the one that provides for total secrecy of the information provided willingly by any individual or an agency. This gives blanket advantages to various agencies and in a way to the homeland security department. While still focusing on unspecified protection to various people and agencies, there are laws that render it unlawful for any government program to be concluded in case there is potential job loss for citizens. Many government agencies that are considered rogue by different groups cannot be easily terminated because of the potential loss of employment. Civil liberties organizations view that as only benefiting some individuals or the interests of the corporate and not working to better the security of the American people.
Another way through which the homeland security department has benefited from the United States is through professional training. The homeland security department, apart from the protection given to it by the law, and funding of around $56 billion, it has been receiving knowledge and skills adequately. This is necessary to ensure the public safety in the United States.
The incidence of September eleventh brought a need to evaluate the skills of security agencies especially in their ability to pre empty terrorist’s activities, as well as, their ability to deliver timely to offer their assistance at a time when it is seriously needed (Security., 2004). Moreover, many people, including the government begun to focus on other occurrences of tragedies, for example, the hurricanes. The creation and establishment of homeland security department to cater for all these needs discussed earlier. In Oder to carry out their role effectively, there was a need to for highly specialized training. The United States government engaged more funding in the training of various members of security agencies under the homeland security department than it had done earlier.
The institute of public service in the University of Tennessee was dedicated for the training of the homeland security department. This is perhaps the most significant dedication that was made toward ensuring the internal security of all Americans, was taken care of especially in terms of providing expertise in matters relating to terrorists. One of the greatest financiers of this program is the U.S government, and this clearly shows how homeland security department has received enormous help from the United States.
State homeland security program was created was established to a homeland strategy to, as well as, arrange all the necessary equipment and training strategies to keep the nation on high alert that is necessary to keep the public safe. The restructuring that was seen after the national homeland act was enacted was the greatest restructuring to have happened since World War II. This reorganization sow integration of other departments that had been charged with varying responsibilities, but all aimed at ensuring public safety. These agencies were all brought under the existing national homeland security department (NHS). The NHS did not have an oversight or supervisory mandate before. The placing of these departments under NHS, was for strategic reasons, and was primarily crucial for enhancing the achievement of their common goal.
From another perspective, it was another way in which this department benefited from the policies of the federal government in that it gained a helping hand in attainment of its goals. In terms of firewalls and barriers that could have been present in acquiring information, they all disappeared with integration of all these agencies hence improved its performance. Restructuring also came along with recruitment of more personnel for effective coordination. This had an overall effect of reducing workload per each person, meaning that anyone of them could be involved more creatively in their work, and this lead to enhanced performance.
In conclusion, a safe America that is secure from all terrorist threats has been, and will be the dream of all the generations in this country. The Al Qaeda terror network, under the leadership of Osama bin laden, had been issuing threats to America from as early as 1992. Throughout this time and even before, the American government has given an absolute priority to the safety of its citizens. Several agencies have been put up at states, as well as, the federal government level to protect Americans from any terrorist’s plans. Key among these agencies that had been put in place before 2001 are: the national security branch (NSB), the federal bureau of investigations (FBI) the national counterterrorism center (NCC) among others. The culmination of cultivation of a sense of security for any everyone was the passing of the patriot act that required all public places, and public buildings to be put under surveillance. This could not guarantee public safety as fire walls did exist between all national agencies. Something else had to be done to synchronize the working of all these national agencies into one efficient, effective system. The passing of national homeland act (NHA) was a giant step toward achieving this dream (Nakaya, 2005). This act was passed by the congress due to the considerable potential it had to secure the homeland of America.
The establishment of this had a massive boost toward attaining the objective of coordinating all the federal agencies that had been mandated to fight terrorism in America. All the legal provisions require to protect this agency has been passed by congress. In addition, the congress approved and continues to approve all the funding required for the smooth running of its operations. In addition, the government of United States continues to provide essential services such as training and provision of equipments that are crucial for the agency to carry out its mandate effectively.