Obesity prevails as a significant cause of many diseases and abnormalities in humans. Unfortunately, obesity is rapidly increasing now more than ever before. In the past decade, the records of obesity increase especially in the United States are the highest. The records from NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) indicate that obese people in the United States accumulate more than 60% of the population (Gardiner et al., 2008). Women are more prone to obesity, as compared to their male counterparts. Although obesity is a cause of many abnormalities and diseases, its relationship to preconception, pregnancy and post-pregnancy fails to present full elucidation. In other words, there is no clarity beyond doubt that obesity directly reduces fertility, fecundity and fecund ability. In addition, the pregnancy outcome in obese people is of a negative impact (Brewer & Balen, 2010). Obesity or being overweight has a direct relation to reduced fertility, fecundity and fecund ability. The pregnancy outcome of obese women is also of a negative nature and repercussions.
Hebbana et al. (2004) explains that medicine incorporates many confusing terminologies which almost have the same meaning. The term ‘fertility’ has relations with the ability or inability to conceive. The same case applies to fecundity and fecund ability. In general, the terms ‘fecund’ and ‘fecundity’ apply to one’s capacity to reproduce. With this in mind, obesity applies to one’s capacity to reproduce and one’s stature of reproducing or failing to do so. Smoking, and the age in a woman are other determinants of a woman’s fecundity or fertility. However, significant studies continue to prove that obese or overweight women continue to negatively affect their chances of conceiving, due to the effects of their menstrual cycle, hormonal outputs and other bodily metabolisms (Chuang, Velott & Weissman, 2010).
High body max index in both men and women continues to show their negative effect on fertility, fecundity and fecund ability. A high body mass index affects fertility in a number of ways. First, it may increase the volume of division donated by adipose tissue. This is with relation to exogenous or endogenous steroidal hormones. Secondly, it changes in hormonal excretion and metabolism. This includes producing the altered steroid hormones. Thirdly, increased BMI may alter estrogen polymorphisms. This may also include receptors of insulin. These are mainly engaged in pathophysiology. This is of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Fourthly, the enhancement of tangential adaptation of adrenal androgens to other estrogens takes place (Arendas, Qui & Gruslin, 2008).
A study conducted by Law et al. (2007) showed that obesity has an association with reduced fecundity in women who are obese, overweight and obese primiparous women. In addition, the same study showed that women who had regular menstrual cycles, but were obese, also had reduced fecundity. In their recommendation, Callaway et al. (2009) suggested that weight loss could increase the fecundity in the women in these groups. Medical professionals insist that high BMIs in women affect their menstrual cycles. This means that they have irregular menstrual cycles. The irregularity in the menstrual cycles affects a woman’s probability of getting pregnant. However, women with regular menstrual cycles also affect in lowering their chances of conceiving.
A study conducted by Wise et al (2010) also affirms that women who were either obese or overweight have low chances to get pregnant. In addition, the same study concluded that “the association between underweight and fecundability varied by parity”, (253). When medical practitioners refer to a woman as obese or overweight, they mean that their body mass index is >30kg/m2 (Richards & Mousseau, 2012). Obesity may either increase metabolisms or reduce them. In other areas, it affects the negative production of hormones and other factors affecting the reproduction (Melzer & Schultz, 2010). Complications, such as diabetes, high blood pressure and the harsh environment created for conception are all factors resulting in time to pregnancy factors. People with regular menstrual cycles have higher probability of conceiving, as compared to people with irregular ones. If these people are obese, their chances continue to become scarce.
The problem of low or poor fertility is not only in men, but also in women. Obesity in men links to low levels of inhibin B, testosterone and subfecundity. It also has links to low semen quality. However, this is not the case in all studies (Paden & Avery Jr., 2012). This factor shows that obesity in both male and female is of the significance to both men and women, as far as conception is concerned. As high body mass indices have negative effect on the menstrual cycles and the hormonal excretion in women, the same have negative impact they have on hormonal imbalance in men and the quality of semen secretion.
The predictors in this study include one’s body weight in relation to one’s height, menstrual cycle and age. These factors relate to conception and they can, therefore, predict one’s probability of conceiving or not. Previously, obesity was not as considered in conception as other factors. The inclusion of this factor in the other factors enables the professionals to have a comprehensive relationship with the other factors. Professionals usually explain that one’s nearness to menopause reduces her chances of conceiving. Weisman et al. (2011) states that other factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, are not only a predictor in men, but also apply to women.
This study allows the professionals and other people related to this field to fully comprehend the relationship between obesity and the period for conception. This relationship remains debatable by many professionals; even though, several studies prove that there is a direct relationship (Gardiner et al., 2008). Clarity about the relationship between BMI and the period before conception will not only allow the professionals to identify ways of rectifying these abnormalities, but it will also allow them to find ways of preventing the same. This will be one of the many studies that affirm the relationship between the two. The more studies professionals understand the negative influence of obesity or being overweight before conception, the more they find ways of advising the public on the same.
Shepherd (2008) explains that nutrition has a major role to play in the period of conception. The Lifestyle includes one’s eating habits as the main contributory factors to ones weight-gain. The people in the field of reproduction advice people to be sensitive to their diet intake at the time of conception. Good nutrition is fundamental in the increase of fertility, fecundity and fecund ability and at the time of conception. As identified above, this issue not only entails the women, but it also concerns the men. This study will add up to other studies relating to men’s obesity with the time of conception, in as far as reduced fecundity, fertility and fecund ability are concerned. The study addresses both men and women in the ages between eighteen and sixty years. It will not be discriminative on such activities as smoking or alcohol consumption. The study will also assess other studies relating to obesity and non-obese participants. Obesity has a direct relationship to the pre-conception period. Obesity negatively affects fertility, fecundity and fecund ability. This condition is not only in the women, but it is also in the males. In addition, it affects people of all ages.