Over the past few years, diseases with cancer case have escalated by an alarming rate. Cancer is a collective term, used to mean condition, in which abnormal cells divide continuously without restriction. The cell may invade the neighboring structures, thus, referred to as metastasis. The statistic of cancer cases, recorded in different healthcare unit, has raised an alarm in the evaluation of the causes. Cancer differs from the other diseases on the basis of disease pathophysiology (Cicalese et al., 2009).
In many cases, diseases, which are non-cancers, have a cure that targets the causative organism. However, in the treatment of cancer conditions, the therapy aims at arresting the cell deformation rate and spread. This is achieved through killing the cells, slowing the rate of spread and/or reversing the differentiating from defective cells to normal cells.
Cancer cases are classified, according to the cells that they target in the body. The cases that affect the cells of the body glands are termed as adenocarcinoma. These conditions are the most vibrant in the manners of spreading to other areas of the body, as compared to other types. The second class of cancerous diseases is the neurosarcoma. The cells, affected in this class, are those of the nervous system. The conditions result to paralysis of the structure of the body distal to the location of the defect (Mgrdichian, 2009).
The third category is the lymphomas and myeloma, which are the cancers of the immune cell in the body. The cancer conditions that affect the blood cells and the origin blood cell are termed as leukemia. In all these cases, there is a common characteristic of distorted cell form from the normal. The body is made up of different sets of a cell, which makes up tissues. These cells can be broadly grouped into epithelial cells, connective cells, blood, and lymphatic system.
Tumors can be classified into two groups: benign and malignant. The benign tumors do not metastases to other structure in the body. However, with no therapy measures, the benign tumors can transform to malignant tumors. The benign tumors are more or less similar to normal cells. In the benign stage, the cells are in the early stages of mutation of deformation but do not show disfiguration. The stages of mutation and deformations of cells follow a systematic process. Targeting the cell, at this stage, can determine the progress of the disease and the rate at which recovery is attained (Cicalese et al., 2009).
The cells start from hyperplasia, where they multiply in number but with the same conformity as normal cells. This stage is followed by the second stage, which involves cells, taking another function in the body other than their ascribe role. They, then, undergo a stage of abnormal proliferation, thereby, assuming new structures. Then, these cells metastasize to other location in the body. During dysplasia stage, the cell can only be managed through radiotherapy or excision.
The differences in the nature of the normal cells and cancerous cells can be explored in different aspect. In respect to division, normal cells divide in a sequential manner that is controlled by the body. This ensures that only those cells that are demanded by the body are produced at a rate that does not lead to over production.
Cells that are not required by the body undergo a process of cell death-apoptosis, while those, needed by the body, are used in body growth and repair. However, in cancer cases, the number proliferation rate is not checked. Consequently, cell divides at a faster and an elevated rate that the normal. This causes a heap of cells, leading to the formation of a tumor. The tumors’ may be either benign or malignant (Mgrdichian, 2009)
The cancer cells are immune to normal body chemicals that destroy old and spectator cells in the body. This increases their bulkiness in the body, causing metastasis to the neighboring tissues. The spread can also be far reaching, where the damaged cells are transported to the part of the body through blood and lymphatic tissue. The ability of the cancerous cells to elicit immunity has been demonstrated in disease cases. This has led to the invention of biotherapy that uses immune cells to suppress the growth of the cells. This differs with the nature of normal cells, which are not affected by the immune system. The body detects the normal cells, while the cancerous cells are spotted as foreign.
Normal cells are restricted to locality and if migrated to other areas, they conform to the cell, found in that site. However, the cancer cells mutate and metastasis to other areas, destroying organs and tissues in these regions. The defect may spread extensively to lethal levels.
The DNA of the normal cells duplicates and codes the amino acid, which is a non-ambiguous state, creating amino acid that is the building blocks of the human body. These amino acids are different and cannot be used by the body. The DNA of these cells, normal cells, is not mutilating. Conversely, mutation of the cancer cell causes changes in the genes and chromosomal structure. The DNA in these cells causes defective composition of the chromosomes, thus, causing abnormal cells that are different from the cells of that part of the body (Cicalese et al., 2009).
The normal body cells derive their large amount of energy, used in the sustenance and development, from the Krebs cycle. This is a process, which involves the transfer of ions and compound in a sequence, leading to production of energy. The process takes place in an interplay medium of the cell mitochondria. On the other hand, cancer cells do not have normal mitochondria. Therefore, the enzymes necessary for the energy production are futile. Lack of functional enzymes in the mitochondria causes the cell to find an alternative for energy source. The cancer cells derive the larger part of their energy from glycolysis, burning of fat or glycogen (DeLellis, 2004).
Another difference between the normal and cancer cells is that normal cells are aerobic in nature. This means that they use oxygen in energy production. The rates, at which the cells proliferate, allow the cell to get enough oxygen from the blood and excrete their waste-carbon dioxide - through the blood. However, cancer cells multiply at an elevated rate that cannot be fully supported by the perfusion of the blood. Therefore, they depend mostly on anaerobic process of energy production. These have an effect of production of lactic acid, which can be toxic to the cells.
The supply of blood in cancerous cells in reduced as compare to that of normal cells, thus, there is the tendency to carry out anaerobic respiration. This is associated with the defective amino acids, produced from the cells. The affected gene causes production of mutated amino acids. The coding process to produce the required amino acid for blood vessels in these cells is disrupted. This delays the formation of the vessels, while the cells increase in number, adding the risk of poor perfusion. The lack of blood vessels has also been associated to the characteristic of these cells to be anaerobic (Ruddon, 2007).
The functions of the enzymes and hormones are not interfered with in normal cells. However, due to the change of DNA and structure of the cells components, the enzymes and hormone are in a mismatch. These cause their effect to be minimal or absent. To some extent, the amino acid produced predisposes substrates to enzymes exacerbating their activity (Ruddon, 2007).
The nature in the matter how the two types of cells respond to treatment in cases of an ailment is also different. The normal cell metabolizes the chemical, introduced in the body, in a better way than the cancerous cells. This has been displayed in those people who are on treatment where the drug metabolism rate is boosted in the normal cell that in the cancerous individuals. The reason put forward to explain this difference is the modification of enzymes in the cancerous state. The lifecycle of the cells is also different between the two cells. Normal cell depending with the location where the cell is found in the body differs, in that of cancerous cells
The cell differences arise during cell proliferation due to factors that affect the cell cycle. These factors can either be physical, environmental or biological factors. The state of the cell in the body is imperative, since it determines the risk, associated to acquiring cancers. Individuals should be asked to undergo for cells examination of organs or systems that are at high risk of cancer development. These organs include prostate, cervix and breast among others. Moreover, genetic counseling and assessments are equally valuable to rule out cases of high risk of metaplasia (DeLellis, 2004).
Understanding the differences of the normal cell from the cancerous cell is vital in disease evaluation. Diagnostic examination and test should be well understood, avoiding miss- interpretation. In addition to this, understanding the differences in the two forms of the cell can help in determining therapy in the management. Oncologist uses the knowledge of cell deviation from the normal structure to stage cancers, hence, determine the best intervention to be used.