Kidney transplant is a process of surgery used in placing a healthy kidney into a patient with kidney failure (Barry, Jordan and Conlin, 2007). Surgical operations of kidney transplant are among the most common transplants in America. One donated kidney is required to replace the work that has been done previously by a person’s kidneys. Sources of kidney for transplant may essentially come from: a living donor related to the recipient or a spouse, friend or even from an individual who has died in the recent past and has not been diagnosed with a chronic disease affecting the kidneys. The health kidney is carried in cool saline water for the purposes of preserving the organ for about a period of two days or exactly 48 hours. This provides time for the healthcare professionals to carry out tests that match the tissue and blood of the recipient and the donor prior to the surgical operation.
This is essentially a procedure for the donor. The kidney donor is placed under normal anesthesia prior to surgery (Barry et al., 2007). This implies that the donor will be made to sleep without pain. Normally, modern surgeons can utilize surgical cuts with laparoscopic methods. The surgical operation for removing the kidney takes a period of three hours.
The donor normally lies on one side. An incision cut is then made up to 12 inches long. This cut is made on the donor’s side, a little below the ribs or alternatively over the last ribs. Tissue, fat and muscle are cut and removed. A rib may be removed to carry out the procedure. The ureter (tube carrying urine from kidney to bladder) and vessels carrying blood are detached from the kidney. The kidney is thus removed safely. Stitching is used to close the cut. This completes the process in an open kidney removal in what is commonly known as a simple Nephrectomy process (Novick, 2007).
The surgeon makes a cut between the length of 8 and 12 inches. This cut is normally made on the belly front, merely below the ribs. It could also be carried out by the side. Also, tissue, fat and muscle are cut off and removed. The ureter and vessels of blood are cut and detached from the kidney and thus the kidney is chuck off. The surgeon additionally cuts off the adrenal gland and some lymph nodes (Novick, 2007). The cut is then closed up with staples or stitching done on the wound.
The surgeon carries out either three or four small cuts, normally not more than an inch each in the belly and to the side. The surgeon makes use of a camera and very small probes to carry out the surgery. Towards the end of the process, the doctor makes on of the several cuts bigger up to about four inches to remove the kidney. The surgeon then cuts the ureter, places a bag surrounding the kidney and then pulls it through the bigger cut. This surgery is normally longer than in an open kidney removal. However, many people recover faster and experience less pain after the operation (Novick, 2007). In some occasions, the surgeon could make a cut in a disparate point than explained here. Some health institutions and hospitals are carrying out this process through robots.
The kidney recipient is given a general anesthesia prior to surgery. The surgeon then makes a cut around the lower belly region. The surgeon then places the donated kidney inside the belly at the lower region. The vein and the artery of the donated kidney are linked to the vein and the artery of the recipient’s pelvis. The blood of the recipient flows via the donated kidney, which makes the urine flow in a similar manner like the way the previous kidneys did during healthy moments. The tube carrying the urine is then attached to the bladder of the recipient. The kidneys of the recipient are then left in place not unless they cause high blood pressure, any infections or in the event that they are found to be large for the body. The closing of the wound then follows (Barry et al., 2007). In an ideal operation, kidney transplant can take a period of three hours. Kidney transplant can also be carried out with a pancreas transplant for individuals with diabetes. This will normally add another period of three hours to the entire surgery.
While kidney transplant is a very important medical process, there are risks involved especially with anesthesia. These mainly included having breathing problems and some reactions to medications. Obvious risks associated with any kind of surgery including kidney transplant includes infection and bleeding (Barry et al., 2007). Other related risks in the kidney transplant procedure are: heart attack, blood clots, infection on wounds, side effects emanating from medications utilized in preventing rejection of transplant among other issues like increased infections risk and harm to other organs like the liver.
Generally, kidney transplant is a very innovative medical surgical operation that has been in use for years in helping patients with kidney failure. It is a worthy cause that requires donors to provide kidneys for the patients. A standard kidney transplant process takes three hours as seen in this research. Moreover, other transplants can be carried out with a kidney transplant at the same time like pancreas transplant.