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Diabetes is one of the chronic metabolic diseases. There are two types of diabetes; type 1 and type 2. Both are characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia). The blood sugar level in the body is controlled by a hormone called insulin which is secreted by pancreas. This hormone helps in the absorption of glucose from blood into the cells. Type 1 diabetes is mainly caused when insulin producing cells, beta cells, of the pancreas become abnormally non-functional hence producing low insulin (Miller, Vandome & McBrewster, 2009).

Common symptoms of diabetes type 1 include: frequent urination, high amounts of glucose in the urine, dehydration, poor metabolism and weight loss. Other symptoms include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, bladder infection, irritation, blurred vision or even coma in extreme case. Some of the factors that make one more susceptible to diabetes type 1 infection include family history (genetic factors) and geographical orientation as the major risk factors while exposure to some virus (example Epstein-Barr virus), early intake of milk from cows and intake of omega-3 fatty acids are minor. The common treatment is usually injection of insulin into the blood system. Pills are not used because they get digested along the alimentary canal hence ineffective (Milchovich & Dunn-Long, 2007).

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Type 2 diabetes is the other type of diabetes. Pancreas of persons suffering from type 2 may produce enough insulin but the body may either develop resistance to high or normal insulin levels. This leads to high level of glucose in blood A person whose family history shows type 2 infections is at higher risk, especially the next of kin. Exercise and eating habits are also very influential on whether one will develop diabetes type 2. The symptoms shown by this type of diabetes is more less the same as those of type 1: frequent urination, dehydration and other related symptoms such as slow healing of infections.

Keeping fit through exercise and controlled diet, which is primarily aimed at reducing the sugar levels, is the best way of treating diabetes type 2. However, one is likely to get this disease if the genome is favorable for diabetes attack; a risk factor based on family history. Both types of diabetes can be prevented, by a greater percentage, through: regular physical exercise, maintaining low weight, intake of low calories and high fats food, reduced smoking and low alcohol intake (Miller, Vandome & McBrewster, 2009).

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