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AIDA Marketing on the Web
An example of collaboration is the development of the Web commerce is the on-line brokerage E-Trade and the retailer Target, of E-Trade Zones, which offer in-store customers access to trading and banking on the World Wide Web. E-Trade Zones are now being launched in more than 200 Target stores in the United States. Together with the accounting firm Ernst & Young, E-Trade designed and tested both an on-line and a face-to-face financial-advice service. E-Trade handles two million e-mails a day-most being simply routed between its four million registered users who are inquiring about or bidding on some 22 million listed items. The company’s primary focus now is on “stability and scalability toward a customer”.
Much painstaking work has been done by advertising researchers at E-Trade to catalog and describe advertising effects, yet relatively little has been done to develop a process model to show how these effects interact with each other and with the message receiver meaning their customers.
The model proposed is three-dimensional and nonlinear and offers several distinctive characteristics. Its shape was suggested by the famous double helix structure of DNA first proposed by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1953.
Most process models of advertising are linear and posit that receivers of advertising messages move through several hierarchical stages on their way to purchase, or adoption of a desired behavior. These stages are traditionally described as Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA)- which is implemented at E-Trade with a great success; or Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction, and Action (DAGMAR); or Awareness, Knowledge, Liking, Preference, Conviction, and Purchase (Learn-Feel-Do).
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The latter is a two-dimensional matrix, with thinking/feeling as the horizontal axis and high-to-low involvement as the vertical.
However, as nearly every practitioner of advertising knows, there are significant nonlinearities inherent in the creation and delivery of advertising messages. Advertisements may be on or off target with their intended audiences and customers. At E-Trade AIDA conception operates as a message delivery through mediated channels could be sporadic or inconsistent. Message retention and learning may be inhibited by such factors as clutter, noise, or language and cultural differences and provides the company with the customer feedback immediately.
Advertising objectives of the E-Trade towards its customers are as follow. Within AIDA concept – persuading people to do things, concerned with getting people to fill certain emotions about the product. Cognitive – concerned with making people believe something. Corporate identity – physical manifestations e.g. logo, design of letters, etc. Corporate image – mental manifestations, reputation. Measuring effectiveness. Changes in sales, brand awareness – what proportion know about your brand, purchase intention, perception of the brand or company, recall – not a worth while measure. What proportion of public seen the advert remembers it, but does not mean they will buy the product, repeat purchases.
The AIDA model gives a customer the elaboration-likelihood model: Cognitive processing – not the message – leads to attitude change.
In short, AIDA and the consumer’s progress up the ladder of effects is seldom an orderly one and is subject to frequent interruptions, false starts, and noncompletions.
Moreover, E-Trade implemented the concept like not most of the hierarchical models, which assume that advertising is something done to the consumer (Stimulus-Response) rather than something the consumer uses to make choices (Consumer Information Processing). While it is every advertiser’s desire to shape and control behavior according to “scientific” principles of stimulus response, in practice the desire is often frustrated.
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