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a) How can we best implement climate change policy whist at the same time addressing the needs of all the stakeholders and environmental concerns?
In order to prevent climate change new, stringent laws, reforms and policies are required for reduction of green gas emissions and such could be through introduction of carbon development pathways, support of socio-economic as well as legal restriction that addresses climate change. At same time developing countries that are vulnerable to climatic impact must be given the much needed assistance to be sued in development of resilient infrastructure as well as to fortify the essential adoption needs. In addition to that effectiveness and legitimacy of such response to climate change relies heavily on the way such processes are governed, the ways the actions are determined as well as the roles each stakeholder plays in the implementation process, thus sufficient accountability and transparency as well as public participation is crucial to success of such measures.
b) Should we use an incremental change process or does it require transformational change - consider the characteristics?
Both changes contribute in curbing climate but one is more effective than the other considering the past experience. Transformation change (radical and fundamental changes) involves waiting for solution from the large stakeholder especially the developed countries through radical changes in all cycles of the society like through use of treaties, development of policies and agreements to penalize culprits and compensation on the victims of the vices. Unfortunately the approach has been marred with controversy regarding free riding by some nations and other complain that splitting of nations into annexes is unfair and that the problem required construction from all quarters as both of them are affected by the menace. The most effective way to tackling the problem of climate change is to employ the incremental change process (slow and gradual changes) where each both lager scale, medium scale as well as small scale measures are considered in abiding the climate change especially when considering the fact that international and national policies must entail enforcement and action from the local and regional levels. Climate change can be curbed through use if simple ways like reduction of emission at household level though low flow showerheads, weatherization, bike riding instead of driving, turning down of water heaters temperatures, and use of thermostats thus gaining the hidden costs associated with energy consumption therefore looking of local solution is better instead of waiting fro one from the top levels.
c) Are there any particular intervention strategies that could be used to pursue this change?
There is several intervention strategies that can be use to pursue the climate change and it involves mechanisms that target at reducing emission of green house gas and such include use of carbon sinks, regulated and use of clean as well as efficient sources of energy and the use of polices ad laws to curbing the change. In addition involvement of all stakeholders is essential in realizing the goals set to managing the climate change in the world.
d) So we collaborate to get meaningful agreement?
A truly global climatic change can be dealt with through full collaboration between all the stakeholders from both the developing as well as developed world leading to dramatic reduction in the costs incurred in dealing with global warming while at same time fostering moving to era of clean energy economy. Collaboration through broad based agreements with ambitious targets of reducing green house gas emissions amplifies the potential costs savings as well as benefits that include creation of jobs as well as rise in GDP to be sued in dealing with the climate change. In addition to that collaboration also stimulates economic growth and accelerates sustainable development in the developing world reducing costs of carbon as more countries joins the global agreement that helps in meeting of targets of reducing global emissions.
e) How best can we overcome the overt and covert resistance that is evident on both sides of the argument?
The evident overt and covert resistance evident from both side of the argument can be reduced if the World Climate Authority issues emission permits while maintaining a check to ensure that actual emission are cannot exceed the set levels. The organization must also be empowered to impose sanctions against defaulters of such agreement of collaboration and that such sanctions must be backed by at least threats of military force. The organization must also regulate geo-engineering system as such systems may serve to damaging several countries as well as regions despite the fact that they improve world climate. Therefore such regulations must included payments probably in every large payments of compensation required for the sake of justice and as a highly visible sign of the sustainability of the combinations of geo-engineering and excessive GHG emissions. Finally a cultural change is also needed to ensure that long term support for the uncomfortable policies essential to curbing climate change in the world thus disapproving excessive consumption ad consumption attired which reinforces the laws set against waste.
PART 2 Organizations are open systems that must relate to their environments
Organizations must relate to the business environments if its to prosper in attaining its objectives, thus business environments that firm, association, and government departments engaged in hospitality industry is often similar particularly in generic aspects as those faced by other type of industries while at same time may contain some pieces that relate to the nature of the industry. Some of the generic aspects that hospitality industries include: the market opportunities, macro environment, political environment that is concerned with competition and enterprise, trade, polices directed towards foreign investments, taxes, financing and finally exchange controls. The social environment that the industry must relate to includes the labour markets, social and physical structures as well as the national cultures of the host countries in which the business undertakes its operations.
Internal environments fro large contemporary organizations include international production, facility management, marketing, information technology, finance. Purchasing and the divisions of human resource management through some smaller firm are sometimes not internally differentiated. Therefore in order for hospitably firms to perform effectively in must relate to such environments by allowing interdependent individual and some groups that exist between them to form relationships across the existing boundaries. This facilitates the groups and individual information as well as other support facilities promoting a coordinated and complementary action.
External environment of the industry is largely not controlled able by management and it include the prevailing economic conditions, demographic, social and cultural forces ,industry structure, levels of competition legal and political forces and finally technological levels that impacts on the abilities of the firms especially in providing its services while sustaining its internal business environment. Moreover some external microenvironment factors like suppliers, market, intermediaries influences the firms behaviour in the in the business environment. Such external factors pertain to two categories: regulatory frameworks and local business structures.
Changes in the regulatory nature i.e. rules, tariff barriers and procedure is linked to nations joining trade blocks or even governments joining trading blocks like the European community.
Assessment of such business environment reveals that it has become very hostile and complex in the hospitality industry though advent of environments like European Union types single market has been faced with relative optimism especially concerns keeping of market shares or abilities to conquer a niche market. A successful alliance is beneficial and possible in most business environments. In addition to that firms may at time influence the politico-legal forces in the environment by directly doing industry association a lobbying and use of direct representatives.
Impacts of external environments are filtered through the internal environments by stressing on commentaries between the personal and imperial business which transfers generic information implying that acts are communicated to public domain thus promoting passage of detailed information by word of mouth meaning more or less secrets is clarified and implemented by specific business strategies.
Such challenges have considerably affected management of these firms are for instance introduction of minimum wages, development of internet based recruitment, globalization, increasing stakeholder expectations and demand, growth of many hospitality companies into global actors in satiating the appetite for human resource at al levels, growing stakeholder awareness and ethical behaviors. To avert such pressures ha sled to radical changes the management of the enterprise human resources through polarized and distanced work force, outsourcing of large section of business activities, reliance on short term contracts as well as agency staff all of which have created little room for loyalty. Most employers have invested on employee motivation in order to avert the effects of reduced employee loyalty.
Other management strategies targeted at countering such problems of changing business environment include the following: making optimal investments on its marketing services, development of strategic planning and operations based on survival of the institution , attaining of sustainability, in its operation, description of human resource marketing, customer service and finances, marketing tactics and policies budgeting and cash floes management strategies, management of process and revenues, enhanced occupancy rates, prioritization of sector based objectives and finally through enhancement of market competitiveness.
Organizations including the hospitality and tourist industry are considered open systems thus in order to prosper their operations must relate to the environment they operate in. In relating to the prevailing business environments the industry must remain flexible to the pressures that that the industry faces. Some of the pressures facing the hospitality industry includes becoming more environmentally friendly in its operations and such forces emanate from consumer demand, the managerial concerns regarding ethics, the increasing environmental regulations, need for aesthetics and maintenance issue related to the organizations physical property and equipment. Other possible factors that exert pressure on hospitality industry and foster change include increasing the influencing of 'green 'investor that covers banks wanting to limit exposures to environmental risk as well as t disproportional influence of on the behavior of the industry consumers.
Hospitality industry is on not one of the main contributors to climate change but concerns have been growing considering the fast growth of the industry in the recent past. This has fostered hotel groups as well as the scholars of hoteliers to exert efforts targeting to improving their performance and relate to their environments sustainable. For example United Nations has created a publication Environmental Action Pack for Hotels a pack aiming at helping hotels managers as and their owners to improve their approaches towards management of the environment. It's able to achieve such target by encouraging use of action checklists for every hotel department, guidelines for development and self-audits. Hospitality industry acts towards improving the environmental performance while at same time contributing to a successful business operation.
In ensuring meaningful organizational development organizations including the hospitality industry whose services spans management of land, energy real estate and other resources is beginning to realize the benefits that arise from protecting of existing resources. To achieve this many hotel managers across the globe have bee actively contributing to going green and the concept of ecotourism has been identified as the fastest growing market in the industry. Hospitality industry is contributing to combating climate change by going green by involving in several sustainable developments like turning its facilities e.g. bed, breakfast and larger facilities to certification resulting to spring up of several institution that concern itself with such task for instance the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). The organization focus on improvement to buildings well as structures to help improve operations by providing third party certificate in relation to designing, building/retro-fitting targeting of properties targeting on improving energy performance, water conservation, reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and enhancement of indoor environmental quality (Waser & Johns, 2003).
In curbing the climate change hospitality industry has engaged itself in various actions like ensuring that there is a sustainable development the industry, efficiency in energy use, management of wastes, conservation of water, the utility of eco-design in the hospitality architecture, production of sustainable foods and management of beverages, use of energy efficient kitchens, conduction of responsible marketing for the restaurants and the hotels, enhancing responsible consumerism practices, in corporation of sustainable business management through its corporate social responsibility activities, communication of environmentally sustainable initiatives, management of the system and the strategies in the Industry and finally through the financing schemes and finding as it pertains to sustainable principles.
Action research by hospitality industry towards climate change
The hospitality industry has contributed to curbing global change by conducting research as well as stakeholder consultations to ensuring that the industry aligns its practices and policies with requirements of sustainability. On of the methodologies that hospitality industry has applied to ensure that it achieves a meaningful change regarding curbing of climate change is through customer involvement in projects bay encouraging them to participate in research that targets at identifying and using of cleans alternatives sources of energy as well as energy conservation which goes along way in reducing emissions of carbon into the atmosphere.
The hospitality industry use its customers to collect and obtain reliable and resourceful information through conduct of surveys and interview methods of research which result in information essential in making of decision my the industry regarding climate change. Some of the action research done by the hospitality industry include the sustainability of the industry through visitor capacity and effects on the environment through waste production and use of energy sources which contributes to climate exchange considering the fact that the industry has in the past years been undergoing a rapid expansion ns increased number of visitor to such hospitality facilities in various tourist destinations.
The industry has also been conducting research on the effects of climate change of the hospitality industry especially when it concerns to seasonality of tourists visiting and the effect of exceeded carrying capacities often experienced during peak season (Coughlan, & Coghlan, 2002). In addition to that hospitality industry has also taken some meaningful action to curbing climate change by funding projects that are significant in curbing the menace for instance projects that target at promoting sustainable use of resources as well a those that promote ecotourism which is one of the recent approaches to facilitating a sustainable hospitality industry.
Action research by hospitality industry regarding changes acts a professional and organizational development involving collection of qualitative adaptation through action research meetings and interviews where the participants evaluate both the sources of various projects process and their outcomes. Such actions research on organization changes are seen through the provided insights in to the way in which climate change operates and affects the operations of the business at different times of the year i.e. peak and low seasons.
Such action research when undertaken by organization proves to be very motivating particularly to those who participate in them and sometimes serve to producing a learning attitude that persists for years even after the completion of such research. It's evident that support and understanding by the senior management is very significant and that looking at it from the organizational development point of view it's also critically essential that participants involved in the action research training roles as they serve to cascade the information and learning into others.