This study extend and corroborate those of other studies and ranges from sports management, heritage studies, tourism management in dscplines such as anthropology, cultural geography, economic history and marketing (Miserandino, 1998; Orbach et al., 1997, 1999). It shows that, it is conceivable to alter the fundermental attributions of persons in a route reliable concerning the attributional results, if the outcomes occur once only meaningfully altered their own attributions, and fluctuated significantly from the rest in the kind of identifying their failures. By appraisal, the NA group endured unchanged in the attributions for fiasco during the tryout. The deterioration in free-practice and expectancies that occurred ensuring to the attributional results supports the notion that, it is the alteration in attributions’ participants that, commenced a cascade of deterioration and improvement, as it is described in Weiner’s (1985) theory. The uniqueness of the current findings is manifold. First, they validate that, each occurrence of dysfunctional or functional attributional outcomes offered by an observer is adequate to modify persons’ success expectancies and causal attributions. Secondly, they demonstrate that, attributional outcome produced alters in free practice behavior. This refers to a kind of behavior, which has not formerly been scrutinized in attribution reskilling studies, but it is a meter of concern in a precursor of improvements and activity or deterioration in performance. The conclusion that, quite simple attributional statements have such significant impacts on the behaviors and cognitions of a novice golfer is underlined by the large effects size in the small mockup of participants.
The research methodology chapter justifies the methodology which is be adopted for the research and explains the research design, the case study, data collection methods, data analysis limitations, questionnaire design and interview script, it presents a survey and explanation of the tools used for data analysis and the investigation of attributional retraining alters novice golfers’ free practice behavior. The type of the data to be collected will be centered on; the investigation of attributional retraining alters novice golfers’ free practice behavior in the study area. Questioners will be used to correct data from the main respondents; novice golfers in the Creative Industries and Sports facilities. Because of the nature of the study; survey, which covers a large area, survey are found to be the most appropriate instruments of collecting data. Interviews will be used to correct data from key informants namely the novice golfers’. Structured interview schedules will be used to collect information from the aforementioned informants. Interviews are chosen for the above purpose because they provide deep data and first-hand information that may be difficult to obtain using questionnaires.
In order to keep the sampling size manageable, a representative of the sample was selected. The researcher randomly selected twenty athletes. This forms thirty percent of the population in the study area. Cluster sampling will be adopted to identify the novice golfers’ to participate. From these clusters, sample random sampling will be done to come up with respondents. In order to validate the effectiveness of the research instruments, pilot testing will be conducted in the selected novice golfers’ facilities which will not be included in the main study. The results of the pilot test are used to review the instruments by adjusting ambiguous items general phrasing. In addition, consultations and discussions with experts have been made to validate the research instruments. To ensure the stability of the research instruments, responses obtained from the piloting have been used. Split half method will is used where the questionnaires items is divided into two; odd and even items and a reliable coefficient calculated using Pearson r. The correlation coefficient is subjected to the Sparsman-brown formula: Vxx=Kr/ (1+ (k-1) r
Where k= the number of items in the new slit half test; for an adjustment of the split half reliable.
As a conclusion, in various cases persons are confronted with current situations or activities, which have no proceeding experience for instance, pupils in physical edification classes. The current study provides valuable information to coaches, teachers or trainers in physical activity or sport contexts that are capable of influencing the fundamental attributions of novice, when those attributions are detrimental to, or not appropriate for achievement. For example, a better apathetic of the impact and nature of dysfunctional and functional attributions can allow coaches and teachers to assist athletes or students, who might be inclined to extract from a bustle after recurring failure. A stimulating perspective for impending research may be to relate the impact of a mono attributional outcome occurrence concerning novice versus experienced participants. One may expect that, in contrast with experts in sports, novices might be more impacted by a mono attributional outcome statement (Bandura, 1986).