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Crime scene investigation refers to the meeting point of issues such as logic, science, and law. The process of dealing with a crime scene is extremely long and exhausting. Moreover, it comprises of relevant compilation of the situations in the scene and the recording of any evidence that could possibly eliminate what occurred and point the person who did that act. Research shows that there is no typical crime scene, no typical body of evidence and no typical investigative approach. In normal cases, a criminal scene investigator may collect blood spatter from a windowpane. This is done through not letting any of the body parts brush the glass just in case there are any possible fingerprints there, carry hair off a victim`s jacket by using tweezers in order to avoid causing disturbance to the clothing adequate to remove any of the available powder in the folds of the sleeves. A hammer may also be used to break through a wall that may be the point of origin for a terrible smell.
Nevertheless, the foremost goal is the conviction of the perpetrators of the crime. So as, the CSI removes off the bloodstains without causing more prints, carrying high several hairs without distracting any remains of evidence and crashes through a windowpane, they are considering all of the significant steps to preserve the evidence in its current form. According to research, blood spatter at the crime scene is extremely significant especially in reestablishing what and how incidences took place by determining the area of the origin of the blood evidence or the movement direction. Another importance of the blood spatter is that it can assist in determining whether an individual was at the area of the incidence the time of occurrence of the incidence. In order to have a successful crime scene investigation using blood spatter, there is a classification system of spatter patterns which focuses on the velocity of the object that causes the effect on the source of blood and quantity of the blood leading to blood pattern or spatter.
According to studies, low velocity is a certain blood spatter that occurs as a result of an influence to the source blood at the speed of five feet per second. In addition, such blood spatter is usually about four millimeters in diameter. On the other hand, a medium velocity usually occurs due to the effect of the blood source normally at the rate of five to twenty five feet per second. Stains resulting from such blood spatter are in most cases ranging from one to three millimeters in diameter although it may be larger or smaller. The high velocity is blood spatter that occurs due to influence the source of the blood more than a hundred feet per second ad is usually less than one millimeter in diameter, but it can be smaller or larger. Furthermore, in case blood hits a surface at a given angle other than ninety degrees, the direction of the path will be seen, interpretations made and measured as required. Thus, through this, the investigator will have permission to reconstruct what and how something happened.
Research shows that the evidence of blood spatter is associated with a crime thus; it can help in providing information that may assist in solving the case at hand. Therefore, it is necessary to document accurately, collect, and preserve this evidence. However, investigators should ensure that the process of handling the blood evidence is proper as a way of avoiding weakening or destroying a potential source of information in the case. This is because blood spatter that is collected and preserved properly can develop a powerful connection between a person and a criminal incidence. Some research shows that blood spatter or lack of blood evidence may be applied to contradict the statement made by a witness. The evidence of blood spatter may to some extent help in showing the investigator the direction to which he or she needs to head to in order to solve the issue. Such evidence could be given to the judge or the jury after many years from the time of the criminal act if only it is collected, documented, and kept properly. The ability to remove an individual as a potential suspect in a crime scene is the most powerful application of blood evidence.
According to studies, in order to process blood evidence effectively, there must be proper communication as the key element in the whole process of finding a crime scene with blood spatter. For instance, there must be clear and free communication between a crime`s responding officer, the detectives of the case, the investigator of the crime, and the analyst of the evidence. The most vital is the effective communication between the investigating officer of the crime and the scientist. This is because a crime scene investigator has to know and beware of the crime lab`s capabilities, the approaches of blood collection and the preservation method preferred by the crime lab. In addition, the crime scene investigator has to know relevant investigative information to the forensic scientist. He or she is also supposed to know the reference samples needed by the crime lab concerning the crime at hand. It is noted however, that, as technology changes or advances, the information may also change periodically.
Furthermore, policies within the crime lab may also change, change in lab personnel, or even there may be change in lab administrations. Moreover, the forensic scientists` preferences may also differ from one lab to another lab. This implies that the best approach of obtaining blood evidence for one forensic analyst may not be preferred by another forensic scientist. Therefore, to ensure better results are achieved as required by the case, the crime investigator has to meet frequently with his or her crime lab`s forensic scientist. This helps a lot in determining the most considerable way for collecting and preserving blood spatter as an evidence of the committed crime. This thus ensures that the evidence is collected efficiently and effectively.
Today, the technological state of blood evidence analysis has highly advanced than in the way it was in the previous years. According to studies, considerable crime labs in the previous years used to depend mainly on the ABO blood grouping system in order to characterize bloodstains. This hence implied that the blood could have resulted from four to forty nine percent of the entire population. Nevertheless, from the beginning of the 1990s, several crime labs began applying DNA as blood analysis method to characterize bloodstains. Currently, because of advancement in technology, the blood source can now be reduced to an individual out of various and different people. This thus requires that the crime scene investigator is well aware of the type of approach. The investigator must also know the approaches of bloodstain analysis that are available from his or her crime lab, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and private lab for effective results concerning a certain crime.
In overall, blood spatter as a crime evidence is usually more informative in cases where a suspect and a victim are in contact or close proximity. For instance, in case a suspect shoots a victim, there could be mixing of blood between the offender and the victim. However, blood exchange will less likely occur in incidences where the suspect shoots a victim from a distance. In most cases, crime investigators sometimes tend to collect blood blindly without taking much consideration concerning the facts they are trying to develop. An example of such cases includes a crime scene that involves a corpse of a shooting person found alone in his home. In such cases, some investigators will only collect various blood samples from around the body. Research thus shows that such blood samples may not be of any help since it will only show that there was bleeding of blood by the victim during the incidence. This information is already proved by the availability of the body; nevertheless, one sample of pooled blood next to the body can be collected in order to help in confirming the results received from the victim’s reference blood sample.
It is thus advisable for the crime investigators to make an extra effort in collecting the evidence that is going to offer the most considerable information in developing the facts about the scene. The crime investigator should have the idea that it is better to have enough or more samples of the evidence than inadequate evidence collected. This is because the more information and evidence collected the better and effective results. More concentration should be put on obtaining representative samples of the peripheral blood stains. These could include the bloodstains that are not near the body of the victim and the main location of the incidence. Sometimes, the investigator should obtain blood spatter patterns that seem to be different from the majority of the blood spatter patterns.
Through this bloodstain samples, effective and efficient investigative information could be obtained. Therefore, for better results, the crime investigator should also ensure that they search for blood tails that may be leading away from the scene of the crime. This is because those blood tails could be from a suspect who encountered some wounds during the occurrence of the incidence. In case a suspect has been found in a case, he or she should undergo serious examination for wounds where such wounds should be documented and photographed. This is because such photographs would be used later as additional and significant evidence in case the offender`s blood and the genetic markers are found in incriminating areas. In most cases, blood analysis is a comparison analysis of the blood of the victim and the blood of the suspect found at the scene of the crime. These blood samples could then be analyzed for the genetic markers that are not the same in the victim and the suspect.
In cases where the crime investigator obtains blood from an autopsy, one of each vacutainer should be obtained from the victim. This is done in order to ensure that the necessary forensic testing is performed successfully. Currently, blood visualization promoting chemicals are being reestablished with the crime investigators. In such investigation, a certain chemical called luminal is applied to bloodstains. However, investigators are advised to use such a method as the last option during the process of blood detection. This is because the application of this method has a substantial number of setbacks that may not provide effective and efficient results as required by the crime investigators. For instance, luminal chemical is rated for providing wrong reactions and may lead to the loss of various genetic markers.
According to studies, investigators should take enough time and use a methodical approach in obtaining and preserving evidence from the crime scene for usage before the judge. Nevertheless, the investigator could quicken the process only if there is suspicion of the destruction of the evidence or even compromised. In such circumstances, the evidence should be preserved or documented and collected in the fastest ways possible. The scope and value of any evidence that may exist should be determined first before the crime investigator visits the area of the crime scene. Information found in such areas includes the statement of witness, suspect’s statement, victim statement, detective’s information, and information from the responding officer. The main reason for collecting the information is to ensure that there is no destruction of any significant or valuable evidence inclusive of shoeprints or trace evidence.
The investigator should be open-minded all the time during the process of collecting information concerning a crime scene with blood spatter. After obtaining adequate information concerning the case, he or she is supposed to create a mental or written plan in order to carry on with the process of documentation, collection, and preservation of evidence. The crime investigator is also required to provide relevant facts to the lab analyst. This thus permits the analyst to make better decisions concerning the best method to the analysis and data that can be noted from the blood spatter evidence.
After documenting the crime scene thoroughly and noting the area of the evidence, the collection process may start. This process may start with the most fragile or easily lost evidence. In addition, considerations of movable objects are also done and then continue with the process along the trail or in some other crucial areas. Blood spatter evidence is not supposed to be exposed to excessive heat of humidity. In most cases, the bloodstains are supposed to be refrigerated until it can be taken to the crime lab.
In conclusion, crime investigation includes recording of conditions at the scene and the obtaining of any observable evidence that could possibly eliminate what occurred and point the person who did that act. Research shows that there is no typical crime scene, no typical body of evidence and no typical investigative approach. In normal cases, a criminal scene investigator may collect blood spatter from a windowpane. In order to achieve better results in crime investigation concerning blood spatter as evidence, there must be proper communication as the key element in the whole process. For instance, there must be clear and free communication between a crime`s responding officer and the detectives of the case among other relevant sources concerned with the crime committed. Just as, discussed above, blood spatter as crime evidence is in most cases extremely detailed in areas where a suspect and a victim are in contact or close proximity. For instance, in case a suspect shoots another person their blood could mix up hence causing blood confusion between the victim and the suspect. Through this bloodstain samples, effective and efficient investigative information could be obtained. Therefore, for better results, the crime investigator should also ensure that they search for blood tails that may be leading away from the scene of the crime. The crime investigator should have the idea that it is crucial to have adequate or more samples of the evidence than inadequate evidence collected. This is because the more information and evidence collected the better and effective results. Therefore, with such information at hand, a crime investigator may be in a better position of finding a crime scene with blood spatter as required by the court.