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In accordance with Wilcox and Cullen (2010) Criminology has had various factors that have highly influenced its development over the years. These factors provide lots of support information that enables people to clearly understand criminal behaviour and its possibilities. However, the biological theories of criminology basically involve the study of endocrinology and physical constitution (p. 1047). These theories are only part of criminality interpretation although they have led to stereotyping with most people arguing that a person is born a criminal and thus trying to influence them to change their ways is useless. On the other hand, biological theories such as Cesare Lombroso's theory are based on the assumption that criminal behaviour is interrelated with certain abnormalities or physiognomic features. Apparently, Lombroso's argument was that criminals had similar facial symmetry, twisted noses, and skull shapes. Moreover, biological theories explain criminology on the basis that abnormalities or genetic factors that are inherited predispose people to criminal behaviour. For instance, some biological defects or abnormalities in the brain may result to criminal behaviour such as rape. In reference to Lombroso's theory, diseases like Organic Brain Syndrome may result to criminal behaviour like rape. Basically, a mentally ill person has no control over their actions (Wilcox and Cullen 2010, p. 1049).
On the other hand, the chief idea behind physiological theories is that possible criminal behaviour is the outcome of an individual's stable psychological characteristic. Generally, these personality traits are responsible for an individual's deviant and criminal behaviour. As a matter of fact, psychological theories highly emphasize on neuroticism, extraversion, psychotisism and many other human conducts (Hagan 2010, p. 139). For example, the criminal behaviour of rape may best be explained by Erikson's psychological theory which emphasizes on child development. In relation to Hagan (2010) Individuals are likely to develop identity diffusion problems in their early childhood resulting to excessive self-consciousness especially concerning their sexuality. Consequently, such individuals tend to act against social norms and end up committing immoral crimes such as rape (p. 140).
Rape is a criminal behaviour that involves an individual forcefully having sexual intercourse with another without their consent. This type of behaviour may arise as a result of abnormal physical features that have been acquired over time or inherited. Inherited or developed mental defects may result to rape traits in an individual. Nevertheless, psychological factors such as stress, low self-esteem, and emotional imbalances may also contribute to the immoral and criminal act (Hagan 2010, p. 139).
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