The national structure of the population of Canada can be characterized as very difficult and simultaneously enough the simple. It is combined because this country occupy more distinctly expressed 100 ethnic groups speaking on tens of different languages, such as English, French, Chinese, Italian, German, Punjabi, Polish, Ukrainian, Spanish, Dutch and Greek. And it’s rather simple because each of them, except first two, is used by more than 3 % of inhabitants of the country. So all numerous languages, except for English and French, it is possible to name languages of national minorities. Actually Canada is a binational country, national structure of which consists of two large nations - English Canadian and French Canadian. Neither that nor another makes the majority.
Analysis of social structure
This feature of national structure of the population of Canada is connected with an originality of its historical development. After all Canada, as well as the USA, is the country of mass European colonization. It is counted up that for last 400 years here not less than 13 million persons came from Europe.
Formation of the English-Canadian nation has begun still in XVII together with the first migratory streams with British Isles in which Englishmen, Scots, and Irish participated. After 1763 when Canada has taken over Great Britain, they have considerably increased. After War for independence and formations of the USA the streams of «loyalists» - those English immigrants in the USA which have not wished to remain in this country here has rushed and during war supported the British army, and after its defeat have preferred to move in remained English Canada. During the same time English Canadian various not British ethnic groups - first of all by mixed marriages of natives assimilation has begun with British Isles with persons of a German, Dutch and Scandinavian origin also.
Today number English Canadian in Canada - 18 million persons, or 58 % of all population. This share is less, than in the end of XIX in when English Canadian made 2/3 all population of the country. Nevertheless it is the largest nation of modern Canada. English Canadians form the basic population in nine of ten provinces (except Quebec). In each of them dialogue in English prevails, and in many provinces on it speak more than 9/10 inhabitants.
The second place between the nations of Canada is taken by French Canadians. As its basis those not numerous first French immigrants have served (mainly from northern France) which have located here still in XVII in the Ambassador of transition of the French Canada mentioned already to Great Britain in 1763 French Canadian have appeared in a full separation from the native land - France. It promoted their especially close internal unity, an interlacing of family connections and finally formation of the special nation which have kept an ancient dialect of the French language, national customs and folklore. Mixed marriages for French Canadian are not characteristic that increases their isolation.
Today number French Canadian in Canada - more than 7 million persons, or 22 % of all its population. This share also is less, than on a boundary of XIX and XX when French Canadian made 1/3 all population of the country. To a certain extent this results from the fact that recently birth rate at French Canadian has sharply decreased, though before throughout more than two centuries differed the highest indicators. About all 4/5 French Canadian are concentrated in the former French Canada - in a province Quebec where they make about the same share in the general population.
Separate compact groups French Canadian live also in provinces of Ontario and New Brunswick (the former French colony of Acadia).
Except two large "nations-founders", the considerable part of the population of Canada is formed by numerous enough transitive ethnic groups, or national minorities. Assimilation of a part of the population of these groups with English Canadian is compensated by inflow of new migrants. Usually such transitive groups have no accurately expressed ethnic territories, forming only separate impregnations in the general English-Canadian background of moving, and in big cities being grouped in separate quarters.
Three largest transitive groups of Canada concern German, Italian and Ukrainian. The Canadian Germans are settled everywhere, but their layer in steppe provinces is especially great. Unlike Germans, old immigrants, Italians are among rather recent migrants. They live mainly in cities, especially in Montreal and Toronto. Ukrainians have started to immigrate to Canada in the end of XIX, and the peak of this emigration had for the period before the First World War. They were settled mainly in steppe provinces, having formed compact enough national areas. As well as French Canadian, the Canadian Ukrainians keep a native language and participate in mixed marriages a little. It is possible to carry natives to other transitive groups as from Europe (Scandinavians, Dutch, Hungarians, Polish, Lithuanians, Latvians, Jews, Greeks), and from the non-European countries (Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Indians, Arabs).
At last, in the population of Canada of separate allocation the radical people deserve. The constitution of the country 1982 carries to them three groups. First, it is representatives of numerous, American Indian tribes speaking in 58 languages whom 800 thousand persons is. Including to the status Indians having corresponding «the American Indian status» and using some privileges, carry 600 thousand persons. About half from them lives in 2000 reservations which together occupy 30 thousand km2. Secondly, it is the Indian-European metises (them about 200 thousand), descendants of marriages of Englishmen and Frenchmen with American Indian women, prisoners in initial development of the Canadian West and the North. Thirdly, it is the Canadian Eskimos (the Inuit). Them about 50 thousand, and they make the basic part of inhabitants of coast of Arctic ocean and islands of the Canadian Arctic archipelago.
National relations in Canada and sometimes got earlier a sharpness. But especially it concerns last decades when they began to shake all building of federation literally. It is possible to name three main problems such.
The first of them is a problem of the ex-Canadian nationalism. In a contemporary history of Canada there is no, perhaps, more an acute problem.
At first sight it can seem to the strange. Really, the ex-Canadian Quebec - the greatest on the area (in its territory three France could take places) and the province of Canada giving more than 1/5 all GNP of the country second for the population. Through territory of Quebec passes a deep-water waterway on the river of St. Lawrence. On this river such cities as Montreal in which almost half of population of a province lives and which is quite often called the Canadian Paris, and Quebec, almost all population of which is made of French Canadian. But that the French language, as well as English serves as a state language of Canada is especially important. Equality of these two languages is strictly observed. Not only official documents, but even labels of the sold goods, announcements and inscriptions on all country become in two languages.
And nevertheless it is impossible to deny that French Canadian in Canada test national discrimination. It has begun even at dominion Canada formation in 1867 when two-national character of the state has not received due reflection in the country constitution. The usages dominating in Canada, took away French Canadian a role of "minor" citizens, and the province Quebec - a role some kind of an economic appendage of English-speaking provinces. French Canadian had almost unique right favorably given to them by the colonial authorities - to bring an oath of allegiance to the new monarch, and in default - to leave the country. According to sources, only 270 people from 63 thousand inhabitants of Canada have left the country. Among left - seigneurs, figures of old administration, men of means anyhow connected with mother country. The overwhelming majority of the population, including the clergy and seigneurs, remained in coloumns. Behind an old ruling class colonizers have kept all riches and the right to operation of dependent peasants. Seigneurs have lost of some privileges and sources of the incomes connected by sinecures, and also with the legal and military power. The weakening of positions of seigneurs after arrival to Canada Englishmen has been quickly realized by simple inhabitants, old bonds of submission and dependence began to break up together with hostility growth to seigneurs and to liege to duties. The English authorities vainly tried to suspend this process.
National and especially economic inequality of two "nations-founders" began to be shown especially in the middle of XX. It has appeared that English Canadian occupy key positions in a national economy and in its social hierarchy that the standard of life French Canadian considerably lags behind an average on the country that their earnings are incommensurable to earnings living in Quebec English Canadian that unemployment in this province much more, and an educational level and public health services more low, than in English-speaking provinces. It is possible to mention and that unlike the next province of Ontario made a basis of economy of Quebec and make the industries belonging to "ground floors".
As the second sharp national problem it is possible to allocate a problem of the radical people of Canada. The indigenous population also has strengthened recently struggle for the rights. To a certain extent it speaks reorientation of its part from the hunting economy for work on hiring and, accordingly, resettlement in cities of the Canadian North. The People-natives already demand for a long time entering into the constitution of the country of the special amendment providing their right to self-determination. As a result in 1993 position has been brought in the Constitutional certificate that the radical people of the country have an inalienable law to self-management as a part of Canada. And this right in 1999 has been realized. There was one more, the subject of federation under the name of Nunavut. The territory of Nunavut has been allocated from structure of North-West territories which area was as a result reduced on 2/3. Nunavut occupies 2 million km2, or 1/5 all areas of Canada though occupy it only 21 thousand persons, basically the Inuit, at average population density 1 person on 100 km2. The rights of territory of Nunavut are similar to the rights of Yukon and North-West territories: here the legislative assembly, an executive office, court has been created. The Prime minister of Canada Jean Chretien named formation of Nunavut in the great afternoon not only for this territory, but also for all Canada.
The third problem is a problem of foreign immigration. Immigration was always characteristic for Canada. But recently its structure has considerably changed. Unlike the past years, nowadays immigrants (annually an order of 200 thousand persons) are formed by natives of:
1. Europe - 19 %,
2. Asia - 57,
3. Latin America - 13,
4. Africa - 7 %,
5. the others (mostly from the USA).
From the resulted figures follows that today "color" immigration to Canada which has got the most mass character sharply prevails.
Earlier non-European immigrants conducted rather a secluded life within the city quarters, now they are settled on all country. The Chinese language, for example, became the third among the most widespread languages of Canada, and Vancouver, an administrative center of British Columbia where there live especially many Chinese, began to name for fun Chai Wan. That’s the reason of constant, since second half 1960th, irreconcilability increase to "alien" immigrants, increase in number of the organizations of racist sense.
In these conditions the Canadian government pursues policy multiculturalism (multiculturalization) which on a plan should promote formation of a uniform Canadian society, reflect interests of each citizen irrespective of its ethnic origin. This policy is realized in the form of special programs.
Education in Canada provides the state, is financed and observed federal, provincial, and local authorities. Education is in limits of provincial jurisdiction, therefore of the curriculum observes regional management. Education in Canada, in general, is divided on: an elementary education, following secondary education and the higher. Within areas under the Ministry of Public Education there are district councils about the school education, operating educational programs. Education is obligatory to sixteen-year age in each area of Canada, except for Ontario and New Brunswick where the obligatory age makes eighteen years. Also in some areas, preschedule release can be given under certain circumstances in 14 years. In Canada only 190 school days in a year, the education officially starts since September (after Day of the Worker) till the end of June (usually till last Friday month, except some cases: In Quebec on June, 24th - a provincial holiday),
Divisions on religion and language
Originally educational institutions of all areas have been divided by a religious principle, but in due course the majority of areas have cancelled them. Ontario, Albert, Manitoba, North-West territories, and certain cities in Saskatchewan - exceptions as all of them still support publicly financed Separate district councils about school education (usually Catholic, but sometimes and Protestant). In Quebec the Catholic/Protestant sharing has been replaced by French/English in 1998. Quebeckers should study at the French school if one of their parents did not study earlier at English-speaking school somewhere in Canada (immigrants from other countries cannot use this exception).
The higher education - also is in Canada under responsibility of separate regional body’s management. These governments give the majority of financing to higher educational establishments, with the rest from financing of profit from tuition fees, the federal government, and grants on carrying out of researches. In comparison with other countries last year Canada had the highest enroller’s registration that is an indicator of erudition of the population. For receipt in the Canadian high school it is necessary to give the certificate or the diploma with the appendix. To entrants who wish to get the admission to the educational programs beginning in September, it is recommended to direct the demand to high school as soon as possible. The best time to make is till the end of January. Entrants, whose statements are successfully accepted, will receive acknowledgement from high school and the documentation describing to the politician of an educational institution concerning monetary gathering.
For successful training in high schools of Canada, it is necessary to have sufficient level of language preparation on reading, the letter, audition and speaking. Applicants from the countries where widespread language is not only English should execute any of following requirements:
• To give the certificate on possession level English language, having specified quantity of the received points at delivery of the conventional tests.
• To succeed a college’s course of language preparation.
Almost all higher educational institutions in Canada have powers to give out diplomas (that is scientific degrees). The general, universities let out students with different scientific degrees (for example, degree of the bachelor, the master or the doctor) while colleges which, as a rule, offer professionally focused programs, give diplomas and certificates. However, some of colleges upon termination of award applied degrees of arts which identify with university degrees. For private colleges there are acts in each area. For example, in training of British Columbia, suppliers will be registered and accredited with Private Career Agency of Establishments of Training (PCTIA), adjusted according to the Private Career law on Training Establishments (SBC 2003). Each area has its own agency on correlation. Unlike the United States, there is no "accreditation body" which observes of universities in Canada. Universities in Canada have a giving degree the power giving degree through the law or the Ministerial Consent from the Ministry of Public Education of special area.
The higher education in Quebec begins with college after the termination 11 Classes (or Secondary V). Students finish two - or the three-year general program, as a result coming to an end with receipt in university, or passage of the professional program which finishes training and results the student directly in the category of hired workers. In most cases, programs of degree of the bachelor in Quebec make three years instead of usual four; however, in many cases, students, pupils at university of Quebec which did not finish college, should finish additional year and protect a term paper. When in Ontario was five years of high school three-year degree of the bachelor has been extended, but now these degrees are gradually reduced in favor of the four-year
The main distinction between areas, concerning universities, is quantity of financing which they receive. Universities in Quebec receive the greatest financing, but have the lowest training. Universities in the Atlantic Canada in general receive the least quantity of financing, and some as university Acadia, almost completely are on private financing.
The royal Military College of Canada (RMC) is a military college of the Canadian Military Forces and is university completely giving higher education. RMC is the unique federal institution with powers of granting of degree.
In the past private universities in Canada supported religious history or fund. Though with 1999, region of New Brunswick has transferred the Right, the Giving degree, resolving to private universities to settle down in Area. University of Fredericton is the newest university which wishes to receive accreditation in New Brunswick.
Trinity Western University in Langley, British Columbia, has been based in 1962 as college with a biennial course and has received full accreditation in 1985. In 2002, university the Quest of British Columbia became the first confidentially financed university of the humanities (though it not the first private university of the humanities). It is a lot of areas, including Ontario and Albert, have passed the law, resolving to private HIGH SCHOOLS (it is not obligatory) to work universities in areas.
Many Canadians remain divided of the admission of private universities on the Canadian market of education. On the one hand, the best universities of Canada consider difficult to compete with private American colleges because of financing, but on the other hand, the fact that the price of private universities lowers demand for training in the walls, thus the essential part of the population of Canada refuses possibility to study in these schools.
The immigration policy of Canada is focused on current requirements for experts on a labor market. Therefore the foreigner, who has ended the Canadian university, has good chances to find work on a specialty and to receive the invaluable professional experience necessary in the further life.
The students, who have received the Canadian diploma, can receive the work permit in the event that they were students of a day mode of study for training not less than 8 months. Work permit period of validity cannot be longer, than term of your training. Further, everyone solves for (himself) - you can either return home with high qualification and the diploma, recommendations, or to remain in Canada.
Annually from the country budget than 7 % are allocated for needs of education from gross national product more. That’s more than it is offered for education by the most developed countries of the world. It is not surprising that quality of education in Canada is almost inaccessible to other countries. Canada is the leader in the field of high technologies, the space industry, and microelectronics.
So considerable attention rendered educational to sphere will provide to the country constant prosperity as the percent of erudition of the population of Canada grows unshakably and the formed population - pledge of constant development of the country.