A Malay sailor is a term used by historians to describe the Southeast Asian seafarers that sailed the South East Sea around Malay Archipelago. Even before 300 B.C, the sailors sailed north to the southern coasts of China and to India through the Straits Malacca and Sunda. By the first century, they had reached the eastern coast of Africa where they were trading. The Malay sailors made use of balance lugsails and rode the winds without compasses but were navigated by wind, cloud formation, stars, wave patterns, animal and plant behavior as well as the watercolour.
During the Gupta Empire, the Indians lay a foundation in modern mathematics as most western numerals originated from India. Mathematics was revolutionized when they invented the number zero. This Indian system made the place value system of writing numbers easier and superior to the existing ones as without it the alternative systems were perceived difficult. The new system allowed for faster and accurate calculations and enabled mathematicians to discern difficult mathematical relationships. This system has been globalized since its invention and shows the importance of Southernization.
Southernization in China greatly influenced the socio- economic, political and technological development in both the Tang and the Song dynasties. The Indian mathematical system revolutionized Chinese mathematics and advanced in the Song Dynasty. The cotton industry during the Song dynasty flourished and developed cotton canvas to make better sails for their ships. Sugar eventually became an important crop after Southernization was well under way along with rice bringing significant changes in the landscape. Printing ad invention of gunpowder was linked to Southernization in the Tang dynasty enabling china to prosper and protect them.