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Russia was the largest and the most influential member of the Soviet Union. Russia’s association with the Soviet Union came after the formal decline of its influence in the expansive community territory. Before this, Russia had enjoyed the much adored global status of a world power since its proclamation as an empire in 1721. Russia’s vast territorial influence came after winning several wars across Continental Europe. Russia had a hierarchical society composed of council of workers (elected and belonging to upper echelons) and peasants (the soviets). This system of governance created a lot of dissatisfaction among the soviets. This was because of the spiraling inequality that was deeply engorged in the Russian society.
In 1917, the soviets led by their leader, Vladimir Lenin, started a massive political revolution that came to be known as the Bolsheviks revolution. It is called as the Great Socialist Revolution or the October Revolution by some historians. This is because Vladimir Lenin had a vision that Russian would be better if it was governed by the socialist ideology. Hence, he sought to share his ideals with the soviets, majority of whom prescribed to the Bolsheviks movement. Vladimir Lenin gradually recruited numerous soviets and assembled an armed force that could successfully counter the governmental forces. Eventually, the Bolsheviks invaded Petrograd in October 25, 1917. Consequently, the Bolsheviks movement overthrew the Russian Provisional Government, who was forced to relinquish its power to the sidelined soviets. However, the Bolsheviks still faced opposition in the international realm, especially the Western powers that did not prescribe to the idea of a communist movement.
These events culminated in a long term civil war in the vast territory of Russia, leading to the massive loss of life and an unstable government. Eventually, in 1922, the tussle between the Government and the Lenin’s political arm came to an end with the Lenin’s side winning. The Bolsheviks Party was finally accorded its long awaited victory. After this significant event, the Bolsheviks party called for the formation of an all inclusive soviet merger, which would span across a vast Russia’s territory. The merger included the Ukraine, Byelorussia, and Transcaucasia. All these territories were represented by their soviet socialist political arms, namely, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Party, the Transcaucasian Soviet Party, and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Party. The formation of a consolidated political arm designed to create a uniform society based on the Lenin’s vision.
The combination of the different political arms gave birth to a single party state that was christened as the Soviet Union. The Communist Party became the sole political arm led by Vladimir Lenin. The ideology promoted by the party became known as Leninism, but there was a variation known as Bolshevism that was promoted by the later exiled Leon Trotsky. The Communist Party had a representative structure composed of non-ruling class soviet. The party had a very rigid leadership and membership structure that was jealously guarded from the intrusion by the non-socialist groups. The party’s leaders were strongly opposed to any moves towards liberal ideals because this would accommodate the Tsarist movement antics. Similarly, radical members sought to infuse their own ideals into the party.
The Bolshevik Government brought the significant political and social reforms into the Soviet society. The government’s leaders envisioned a society in which the working class could get fair treatment. The aim was to eliminate the class stratification created by the Tsarist Government. In order for this to work, proceeds from industrialization activities would be spread to all members based on their needs. In regard to political reforms, the Bolshevik Government created a single party state that was dictatorial. Additionally, strategic political alliances would sometimes be formed with an aim of strengthening their territorial rule.
The Bolshevik uprising came at a time when there was a lot of inequality in the Russian society. The uprising introduced the unrepresented Soviets who were mostly peasants in the Tsarist Government structure. As the father of the Bolshevik movement, Vladimir Lenin committed himself towards achieving a classless society. He mobilized the Soviets to overthrow the Tsarist Government. In 1917, the Bolsheviks finally achieved their victory after a long civil war that saw the vast territory structurally disabled. This marked the birth of the Soviet Union that was governed by the single Communist Party. The party brought together Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasian Soviet political parties. They had one single aim: to stop the rule and the influence of the Tsarist movement.
The Bolshevik Government strongly promoted communist ideals, a move that did not go well with the international community. The approach used by the Lenin’s Government modified social fabric of the society by eliminating class differences. Equality in terms of access to resources was the leading objective. Political reforms also took shape as the society was forced to prescribe to new political ideals. Radical and liberal idealists were not welcomed in the Bolshevik Government. Leon Trotsky was one of them. In as much as the reform agenda of the Bolshevik Government was to improve life in the solidified Soviet Union; the leadership was more dictatorial, which undermined its sole purpose.