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When the American Civil War ended in 1877 paved the way for the reconstruction of the country. Therefore, the period subsequent to the Civil War is commonly known as the reconstruction period. The process of reconstruction was a positive move for the American people to heal the nation from the impacts of the bloody war. However, the variation of the best methods to apply in the reconstruction process formed a basis for intensified conflicts. In fact, various groups from the South, federal political factions as well as the former state confederations were in tremendous conflict (Foner & Mahoney, 1997). The reconstruction process was worsened by the existence of conflicts between two important parties- the confederacy and the Union. In fact, the two were regarded unequal; an issue that brought more conflicts.

The end of reconstruction was brought about by two major actions- the 1877 compromise and the white terror. Initially, the confederacy party had lost to the Union party. As a result, the federal government had the freedom to make decisions as it deemed right. Moreover, the confederate states which had already been defeated were under the full control of the federal government. Similarly, the Army intervention came to an end in the south leading to the collapse of Republican control in the three states of the south which had been remaining (Foner, 2001). The subsequent period after all the woes had been brought to an end, a period labeled redemption by the white southerners was experienced. The redemption period was witnessed the Jim Crow laws which were enacted in 1890. The period was characterized by disenfranchisement of the blacks. In the memory of the white southerners, reconstruction was crucial in perpetuating white supremacy and condemning blacks into second class citizens. The period was known as Jim Crow age. Nevertheless, African-Americans got civil rights and voting powers in the 1960s through the restoration by the blacks.

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