New Spain was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire in cooperation with the major territories in the commonly known American Septentrional. The establishment of the New Spain followed the conquest of the empire of Aztec in 1521. It covered North America and South of Canada a portion that is presently occupied by Mexico and Central America, excluding area covered by Panama; most of United states, western of Mississippi river and Floridas. The Spanish East and West Indies were also included and the administrative units were in Las Californias, Nueva Extremadura and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico. New Spain was leading in the four Viceroyalties established for governing the foreign colonies of Spain under the rule of Viceroy in the city of Mexico whose responsibility was to govern different territories on New Spain instead of the king of Spain. The study below is a description of the Native Americans and the clash of cultures during the period of colonization (Foster, 2009 p.67).

Native America and the Clash of Cultures

During the 16th century, Portugal and Spain were in the forefront of the exploration of the European and expansion of colonial ways as well as opening routes of trade across the oceans. Castilian conquistadors overthrew the Aztec and Inca civilizations laying claim to vast stretches of the fertile land in South and North America. The Empire of the Spanish subjugated the oceans with the large and well experienced army hence ruling the battlefield through their fearsome and well trained soldiers. The Spanish Colonization of America was motivated by their exploration, settlement, conquest and political rules. Colonial expansion across the place was enhanced by establishment of good and strong trade routes and the spread of Christianity via indigenous conversions (Converse, 2008 p. 87-88). The Spaniard tried to justify their actions of colonizing the natives through the use of religion. They convinced the natives to be converted to Christianity so as to behave like the Christians in catholic doctrines. This was after realizing that the natives accepted them when they came through the church than if they come in like colonizers (Hassig, 2006 p.76).

The South and North America forms the so called New World. This name emerged after the discovery of what it contained thus it was unexplored region sometimes. The millions of natives living there did not have knowledge of discovering the potential of rich resources in the place, for example, gold and fertile lands. The place also had the potentials of establishing and developing trade thus improving the economic standards of the place (Payne, 2006 p. 256-276).

When the first settlers came to settle in the place they discovered that the place was very productive. The Europeans decided to colonize the Americans in order to change their lifestyles and have them do things the same way as the Europeans. The Europeans also knew that after colonizing them they would take control over everything thus benefiting from the resources. The settlers moved to America in search for good and safer place to live in thus they explored in and out in search for riches thus they named it New World. America had the potential of become a victorious nation since they still had power to rebel the colonizers until they had to use other ways of reaching them like through the church thus they had to convert them to Christianity and took the advantage to change them to behave like the Europeans. The period the Europeans governed the American gave them an opportunity to enjoy the 'new world' because they could access and enjoy everything they wanted. This enhanced their social, political and economic development since they improved their financial status, improve the leadership skills and interpersonal relationship (Faragher, 2005 p. 235-256).

The southern Thirteen Colonies and Chesapeake supplied England with a lot f money and other resources which were essential during the period of British colonization. In the beginning, the settlers of Chesapeake Bay region were driven by the desire to own land. Tobacco was the main support for the economy of Virginia and Maryland. The farmers concentrated on establishing plantations of the cash crop by the riverbanks where there is good and fertile soil and for the assurance of easy transportation since water transport was the mostly used. For the labour of their lands, the planters brought in many English workers; mostly the young men who were brought in as indentured servants.  By 1700 more than 110, 000 servants had arrived in the place hence most of the immigrants in the place came in as servants. The population rapidly increased although these people were leading humble lives before they had enough money for farming.

In the 17th century, the image of France was represented by four groups; according to the reports of the explorers. These include: Fur Trappers and Traders, fishermen, missionaries and permanent settlers. The early French ventures in North America were the companies trading fur although very few of them prospered. The traders moved to the interior of the area in search of the commodity and the interaction between the foreign traders and the natives was considered to be essential. The Fishermen from French were the earliest Europeans to settle along the coastal areas as they carried on the economic activity. French missionaries especially the Jesuits worked hard to take Christianity to the natives, their efforts became successful when they joined hands with the traders (Powell, 2005 p. 204).

The Frenchmen who choose to move and settle in New France was not large, they were reluctant to leave their mild climate for harsh winters and infertile soil in Canada. However, the French officials enticed with money and other valuable gifts so as to agree to relocate. Once in New France the settlers were encouraged to try all means of increasing their population.


Like many other communities of the world, the Native Americans also faced many challenges during their period of colonization. This is because they were expected to leave their original cultures and adapt those of the colonizers and this was done by force or through tricks such as Christianity, trade or by enticing them.

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