United States was at war, and many authors have reasons to it. Authors have had different themes in mind such as whether the United States intended to create an empire, or make America achieve its dream. Some claimed that United States was struggling to dominate in everything. Others believed that United States had its own interest to tend.


Gail Bederman from the university of Notre Dame claims that, Theodore Roosevelt, who was the greatest supporter of the attack of Spain and Philippines, had it engineered by both race and gender. These two concepts made him perceive imperialism as being the next stage for growth in a healthy republic. To him, expansion and domination was necessary if America was to civilize the world. For people like Theodore Roosevelt, as the United States advanced, democratic vision was also progressing (Bederman, 1996).

As Paul Kramer was unburdening himself while reading a newspaper on a Sunday, on the first page of that paper was George Bush, the then president of the United States. He was giving a speech to the legislature of the Philippines. That then pressurized Paul to continue with his investigation for America's racial politics, which he had earlier on abandoned as the Twentieth century mainstay, commenced. During that period, United States power was becoming known to many people. Majority of America's professionals emphasized the formation of empires as those who criticized them advocated for politics of substance. Paul then was able to witness imperial racisms which were being formed and how differently America and Philippines involved themselves in debates which were filled with hatred. All these debates then contributed to war between the Americans and the Philippines (Hendrickson 2003).

Comparing Gail Bederman gendering imperialism with Paul Kramer racial imperialism

The two of them lead to a war that took place in three periods. These were in, 1889, 1899 till 1902. All these wars were pivotal to all the nations that were involved. This marked the end of Spanish rule. These wars also marked the end of conflicts that had in fact driven away the Americans from their continent to others (Bederman, 1996).

In addition combination of both race and gender played a greater role in the description of the real event in the American war with even the Africans. It did assisted in the explanation and understanding of America's revolution. The struggle between the African and the American soldiers was due to racial discrimination. This then led to development of some level of sympathy. This spilled off to the Philippines who later argued that the American soldiers were taking sides. However, all these fights became final and finally brought joy to the Americans who were able to achieve their desires (Kramer, 2006).

Contrasting Gail Bederman gendering imperialism with Paul Kramer racial imperialism

Gail Bederman gendering imperialism

Theodore Roosevelt, just elected to office in 1882, felt that he was very important and had many ambitions. According to him being a man meant that one was superior. By then, he was just 23 years of age. His intention was to play the role of a man as far as politics were concern. This then drove him to desire much from his manhood. Among the things he desired most was to be powerful. However, he later discovered that a certain legislator was planning to destroy him. He then restrained from it as much as he could. Roosevelt's main aim was to see America perfectly civilized. He packaged himself, albeit with astuteness, as a manifestation of manhood and epitome of civility.

Bederman observes that Roosevelt was successful in articulating civilization by banking on his political mellowness and being in touch with the populace. His vocal advocacy had the intertwined ideologies of nationalism and imperialism. To him America needed to move away from repressing its own lesser people and engage in advancing civilization. He wanted the white-man supremacy expanded beyond America (Bederman, 1996).

According to him, this kind of perfect civilization was spiced by manly men and individuals, who had been civilized completely and a very strong race; white, cannot be compared with any in the world. For him if a man by chance lost his manhood, the other persons fighting against them could easily take away their authority, land and even whatever belonged to them (Bederman, 1996).

Paul Kramer racial imperialism

The war between the Americans and the Philippines broke out in1889 to 1902. This was due to the struggle by the Philippines to get independence after they felt that they were being suppressed by the United States. During the war, many Philippine soldiers and the nationals did loss their lives. The loss of life was due to issues such as; cholera that broke out and also due to the war. This war was dominated by looking at the peoples colour and discriminating them.

The Americans who were in Philippines were identified and the necessary done to ensure that they were sent back to their state (Kramer, 2006). However, this did not just apply to the Americans and the Philippines but also to the Africans as well. After the second commission the Philippines were able to get there so long fort for independence. From then, United States separated from Philippine and in 1961; Philippines appointed their first senate.

According to Kramer, America needed to encapsulate its imperialistic tendencies by offering Philippines a helping hand to harness its developmental potential while in a sense undermining it through what he calls 'inclusionary racism' (Kramer, 2006). This was designed, as a political platform, to divide and shut out the Filipinos so that they cannot wage a tide against the surging America's imperialism.

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