Homo neanderthalensis, otherwise known as Neanderthal man (Neanderthal – for short), is the term used for definition of one of the species of prehistoric human. Hypothetically, it is a human life form, descendant of Pithecanthropus and foregoer of Cro-Magnon (European Early Modern Humans). Homo neanderthalensis were the inhabitants of Europe, Western and Central Asia since Middle up to Late Pleistocene.
European Neanderthals disappeared. The difference between Southwest Asian Neanderthals and Southwest Asian Cro-Magnons is not so remarkable. Mark Berkowitz from the Archaeological Institute of America in his article Neanderthal News Newsbriefs volume 49 Number 5, September/October 1996 admitted: “Computerized - tomography scans of nine Neanderthal temporal bones, which surround the inner ear, revealed small semicircular canals and a distinctive inner ear shape compared to modern humans” (Berkowitz, par. 2). Neanderthals had a more robust build and had distinctive morphological features on the cranium: the head was shorter and with a less pronounced facial front; chin and forehead sloped backwards and the nose region protruded forward more than in modern humans.
So, why did the whole evolutionary branch die out? Jerry van Andel, a geologist at the University of Cambridge, claimed that “The big advantage modern humans had was improved hunting technology, a more complex social organization, and expanded use of resources that allowed them to move from a more sedentary lifestyle to adapt to the conditions wrought by colder temperature" (Mayell, par. 7).
Ancient Greek Theater
Ancient Greek Theater developed in VI BC — V-VI AD. World’s oldest theater, so called Theatre of Dionysus1 in the Acropolis, is situated in Athens. Theater was an integral part of the social life in Ancient Greece. Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes 2 were spearheads of drama as a literary genre. Being nationwide, theater in Greece defined the peculiar features of plays and arrangements of the building itself. Orchestra, skene, teatron were three parts of Greek theater. Special tools were invented to make the spectacle more impressive. For example, Latin term Deus ex Machina derived from Greek mechane – a special mechanism which allowed an actor to soar above the “stage”. Namely in the theater of Ancient Greece this phrase meant a character, a God who appeared in the final episode and solved people’s problems etc.. Actors used cothurnus, special shoes, which made them look taller, buzz-wigs and masks.
It is assumed that three periods are to be singled out in the history of the Ancient Greek Theater: Archaic, Classical and the theater of the Age of Hellinism. Greek Theater had an immense influence on the modern dramatic art. Roman dramatists, as well as the ambassadors of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment widely used the principles and stories of the Greek Theater.. Democratic traditions of dramatic art still remain their prominence. From the ancient times till nowadays significant socio-political, philosophical and ethical issues aroused in plays. Their patriotic saturation, humanity, depth of the characters, grotesqueness3 and buffooneryawoke the consciousness of the spectators. This is what the beauty of the theater lies in.
1.Theatre of Dionysus - is a major open-air theatre and one of the earliest preserved in Athens. World’s oldest theater.
2. Aeschylus (c. 525/524 BC – c. 456/455 BC) – ‘father’ of Tragedy - the first of the three ancient Greek tragedians. Magnum opus – ‘The Oresteia’ – a trilogy.
Sophocles 497/6 BC – winter 406/5 BC) Magnum opus – ‘Oedipus the King’
Euipides (c. 480 – 406 BC)
Aristophanes (ca. 446 BC – ca. 386 BC) – ‘father’ of Comedy, Magnum opus – ‘The Knights’
3. Grotesque - an extravagant style of Ancient Roman decorative art rediscovered and then copied in Rome at the end of the 15th century. Grotesque has come to be used as a general adjective since the late 18-th century for the strange, fantastic, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus is often used to describe weird shapes and distorted forms.