This research focuses on the US energy policy that reduces the dependence on oil energy, by making use of renewable sources such as solar energy. This policy is aimed at reducing the effects of green house gas that comes as a result of carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere.
Solar energy can be defined as one of the renewable energy, which originates directly from the sunlight from where it is tapped by use of solar panels of different sizes. The size depends on the nature of use and the investment capacity. In addition, the mix of average hours for direct sunlight can be defined as insolation (Marquita 23).
This analysis will cover the analysis of the research problem, its solutions, their advantages and disadvantages. However, this research will not make use of complex statistical analysis such as t-test to determine the degree of association between the solar energy and the cost of environmental pollution, which is caused by oil energy (Marquita 25).
Analysis of the Problem
In order to solve the problem of green house gas, the US government is currently providing incentives to promote the use of solar energy. The crucial incentive available in the area that promotes the solar energy is the availability of direct sunlight with strong intensity, which could help in the solar energy production. Insolation reflects the irradiated density, which is calculated majorly in kilowatt hours for any given square meter of the solar panel. There is a variation in the density level of radiation, and the peak is at 1000 watts for a square meter. In regard to consider electricity, the PV solar panels have got radiant energy conversion at the rate of 20 percent or even fewer. It is advantageous because sunlight for three hours on a square meter panel would cost no more than $ 0.06 (Marquita 29). This is less expensive as compared to the houses connected to the national grid lines where one will have to pay higher utility bills. Moreover, it has been reported, “the GOP has introduced a bill in the US Senate called the 3-D Act: Domestic Jobs, Domestic Energy and Deficit Reduction Act of 2011” (“US Energy Policy Debate” 1).
Harms of the Problem
Emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has direct, harmful effect because the climate change results also in the air pollution, which may lead to thousands of deaths annually. This is because there may be more cases of respiratory illness and many people contracting asthmatic disorders, in the country. This problem is a serious one, because in the United States alone, according to Mark Jacobson who is a professor of environmental engineering there are about 20, 000 air pollution related deaths every year (Jacobson 49).
Causes of the Problem
Currently, burning oil fuel plays the biggest role in the destruction of the environment. The emission of carbon dioxide gas is harmful to the environment since it interferes with the economic status of the country. The carbon dioxide, when emitted without control, will result into global warming; hence, people should be interested in saving the world from this mess (Marquita 125). In this regard, scientific research findings have ascertained that bio-fuel energy ranks lowest as a cause of environmental destruction since it leads to little air pollution.
Factual Material that Relates to the Problem
In fact, the greenhouse gas can absorb and emit radiations through thermal infrared rays, which are majorly caused by the carbon dioxide (Marquita 56). The atmospheric lifetime of greenhouse gases has been approximate to take many years in the atmosphere. The period is about 30 to 95 years, and it measures the time, which is required to restore the equilibrium from a sudden decrease or increase in the carbon dioxide emission. Scientific researchers have shown that the rate of mileage differences varies depending on the vehicle that emits carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, this problem of atmospheric pollution through carbon dioxide emission from oil energy has suffered various political setbacks, which have derailed its solutions (Jacobson 39).
Criteria for Judging Solutions
The effectiveness of each solution will be judged as outlined in the following paragraphs.
In conducting this research, ethical standards considerations are put into account. For instance, the language used must be a polite one. In addition, the participants’ culture must be observed and respected. This is done to make sure that the people’s rights and dignity are upheld (Jacobson 62).
It is necessary to note that this research should be done in accordance with the established legal framework of the United States. The US laws and policy are supposed to be strictly adhered to, during the course of this research. Therefore, the study should not contravene the established legal standards (Marquita 54).
Long Term vs. Short Term Effect Consideration
In the short term, the adoption of solar energy should aim at cost reduction. This should help in cutting down the cost of the US government expenditure on oil energy. On the other hand, the long term effects should be seen in the reduction of terminal, respiratory illnesses cases and global warming, which are caused by carbon dioxide emission from oil energy (Marquita 57).
Other Relevant Concerns
Many people die of respiratory illnesses every year, and the US government is spending a lot of money in the healthcare programs to treat and manage such health disorders. This is a worrying trend that requires appropriate policy intervention (Jacob 2). Therefore, the policy should focus on ways of controlling the problem of carbon dioxide emission from oil energy.
Rank Order the Criteria
The ranking of solutions will be done according to priority and effectiveness. For instance, the cost will be given the first priority, followed by legal considerations, ethical considerations, and then long term versus short term considerations. It is also necessary to realize that this is not a standardized rank order criterion, and can be changed to suit an individual’s demand.
Environmental experts say that prevention measures rest on the individual lifestyle. This is done by avoiding frequent usage of vehicles that emit the gas, as well as adopting alternative measures like use of solar energy instead of burning fuel in generators. Using solar energy enables self energy independence to the individual (Jacob 1). Moreover, it can be recommended that different electrical equipment is applicable for providing the solar energy. The electricity produced is free, and incentives from governments are also attractive since the government supports this program to facilitate energy production program. In addition, it should be adopted because there is no transmission cost for solar energy because it is used where it is produced (Jacobson 53).
Evaluation and Selection of Final Solution
The solution on adopting vehicles that emit less carbon dioxide helps in meeting the criterion on the long term versus the short term health considerations, since it helps in controlling terminal, respiratory illnesses. On the other hand, the solution on the use of cheap electrical equipment helps in meeting the first criterion on cost reduction (Marquita 58). Moreover, the solution on adopting solar energy helps in meeting the criterion on legal consideration, since using vehicles that emit a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is illegal (Jacobson 46). In this regard, the adoption of the alternative use of energy, electrical equipment, and vehicles that emit little carbon dioxide closely meet the established criteria.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Solution
The solution on adopting solar energy is cheaper and less costly in the long run. However, it is expensive in the short term because it requires more funding for installation. On the other hand, the solution on adopting vehicles with less carbon dioxide emission is more appropriate because many US citizens own cars, thus there is the need to regulate the content of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere (Marquita 79). This solution suffers the limitation of the reluctance of the people to adopt the idea unanimously. Finally, the solution on adopting cheaper equipment for generating electricity is advantageous because little cost is incurred. However, these cheap electrical gadgets may fail to supply sufficient energy according to the usage demand.
In summary, the best solution is the adoption of other alternative sources of energy such solar power. This meets the criteria by saving on costs and making sure that sufficient energy is supplied to the consumers. In addition, wind energy can be adopted as an alternative source of power because it is cheap, and it does not pollute the air. However, it can be limited in use in some areas, which are wind power deficient.