Over time, the occurrence of pluvial flooding has been a challenge in several urban areas. This refers to waterfall that cannot be fully drained as the level of infiltration is low or simply due to the lack of sufficient drainage space. As a result, the floating water poses a considerable challenge to humanity. Therefore, there is the need to develop strategies to counter it. Considering that this is a natural disaster, mankind has to adopt adequate measures to minimise the level of adversity associated with it (Lazarus 2004, p.15). In this move, the consideration of whether to make space for water or people emanates. Nevertheless, since humanity plays crucial role in most economical activities, the challenge is to address the matter concerning the creation of more space for humanity to avoid interference in various aspects that may hamper development.
The persistent occurrence of floods affecting towns has been detrimental to economic growth. In this regard, the government has sought to establish various means through which it can address the problems. Through the combination of various efforts, numerous strategies for solutions have been proposed, which act as means to alleviate the challenge that most urban areas face. Initially, most proposals were focused on the removal of rural flood defences and allowing the land holding the water from the urban areas (Baker et al. 1998, p. 41). Therefore, water would spread across the spacious rural lands reducing the impact of floods in urban areas. Nevertheless, this consideration was biased and acted as a disadvantage to the people who lived in the rural areas. As a result, after thorough evaluation, numerous outcomes were discovered that targeted to fully meet the initiative purpose. This implied that a better strategy was necessary. Considering these facts, the most appropriate attempt to tackle the challenge was the creation of space for people (Defra 2005, p.37).
The main need of making space for people dictates that better policies are vital to ensure that people did not face the severity of floods wherever they were. This implies that both the urban and rural areas required proper planning to counter the effects of flooding. In this move, the strategies should seek means of addressing common floods to allow high level of drainage facilitated by infiltration (Price & Vojinovic%u0301 2011, p. 59). For this matter, the urban places require designing in a manner that can handle any form of flooding. Regarding the reserves, the flood defence previously constructed on the riverbanks had to be retained, since it serves as a counter measure for flooding in such places. As a result, the creation of more spaces was necessary to allow people to live and enjoy production without hindrance of the floods.
In the process of the establishment of the needs of the people to create more space for them, there are considerations necessary to establish the risks in this regard. On this note, the occurrence of floods poses major challenges to the regulating bodies in relation to the effects it has on human health, economic activities hindrances, destruction of infrastructure and effects on the environment. Since urban areas harbour the majority of the population, this implies that with the occurrence of floods, the infrastructure will not pave way for infiltration of water despite the regions ability to facilitate drainage (Houston 2011, p.15). As a result, these people will be exposed to the adversity of the phenomenon. In this regard, the floating water would be a health hazard since it crates high chances of water-borne diseases. In addition, the floating water creates hazardous scenery, which affects the comfort of the urban residence.
For the already established economic productivity centres, the floods hamper the production process. For instance, in the event of the occurrence of the floods, it implies that most of the employees would not attend their duties while the access of other production elements would be considerably difficult. Similarly, in the areas of infrastructure, the occurrence of floods poses a major threat to the existing infrastructure such as transportation, energy, waste and water. As the floods affect urban areas, it implies that most transport networks become impossible or poses risks to travellers. On the other hand, energy generation and supply becomes a critical problem due to the lack of control of the floods. In this regard, the production industries would not be able to conduct their economic activities. Meanwhile, waste and water infrastructure would be affected leading to a significant health risk since water disposal may contaminate the water for the households’ consumption. This implies that pluvial flooding have considerable destruction of infrastructure which necessitates the plan for implementation of strategies that counter its adverse impacts while maintaining the infrastructure on its appropriate position. This implies that no matter whether floods continue occuring, production would progress normally and the effects on people would be minimal (Warner 2007, p. 212).
The occurrence of floods has severe consequences on the environment. Initially, the biodiversity becomes exposed to various risks that hamper its continued existence. Since floods affect the biodiversity, it implies that the cultural heritage of the urban areas could be swept away in a period of less than a day. Therefore, it calls for appropriate risk management of floods, as the consequence of unmanaged floods are calamitous. Based on these facts, the risk management organisation has struggled to consider the appropriate move to adopt strategies that prevent the dire consequences (Starrett 2009, p. 185). In this move though, there is need to ensure that the people in rural areas do not suffer mainly due to design plans of urban areas. This implies that the destruction of the floods defences at the riverbanks create the room for the flooding water and that they should not be tolerated. Considering the above facts, the distribution of the disaster throughout the country would not help to solve it, but will spread the impacts of the disaster through the country.
One of the vital considerations adopted is the environmental justice. In this case, the international environmental justice recommended that for the occurrence of any environmental disaster, it is essential for it to be addresses and prevent the moves to share the calamity as a mean of enhancing equity within the country (Flood and Water Management Act 2010, p.174). In this regard, the major challenge of pluvial flooding that urban areas face has to be addressed. The problem should not be shifted to the rural areas as a means of ensuring that equity is achieved. In this case, the risk management strategies and policies of the flood control body should be properly formulated to meet the need of making space for people to live in (Walker & Burningham 2011, p.146).
The search for means of reducing the adverse consequences of the floods in the urban areas necessitates the adoption of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). SUDS refers to the design structures within the urban areas that seek to allow permeability in the ground, thus allowing infiltration. As a result, the floating water on the surface reduces during instances of floods (Walton 2005, p.191). Due to urbanisation, there is an increase in the share of paved regions, as well as destruction of plants in order to allow human habitation. With these dire deeds, it implies that in case of floods, water will not drain due to poor permeability of the structures developed, leading to low infiltration. As a result, it will cause more harm to humanity if not controlled. Similarly, this kind of development does not serve to counter any disaster from the floating water or sewer. Therefore, in the efforts to counter the floods and the need to create more space for people, interest should not interfere with the settlement of people in the rural areas. This implies that the strategy can counter multiple disasters and yet remain cost effective to implement.
The SUDS mainly seek to sustain drainage through creation of surface water run-off that increases the level of infiltration. The techniques employed in the SUDS include the storage of rainwater, use of infiltration approaches like porous surfaces, attenuation of rainwater by ponds and storage tanks (Zevenbergen 2011, p. 257). These methods seek to increase the level of infiltration by enhancing the drainage of localised floods. The porous surface, unlike the paved regions, allow for the floating water to drain thus reducing the level of the floating water, which assist significantly in countering the effects of floods. Meanwhile, the ponds and storage tanks help to attenuate the rainwater on the surface through creation of open or closed water features for gradual release of floods to a watercourse. This implies that despite the coverage of infrastructure within the urban regions that are less permeable to water, the storage facilities either are build underground or in the surface allowing the drainage without the need for open grounds. This implies that the need for the creation of space for people would enhance while dealing with the effects of the floods (Ryu & College 2008, p. 225).
Similarly, the SUDS play a critical role in the discharge of water appropriately by linking it to the appropriate watercourse. This implies that the floating water in the floods will be drainage to appropriate open ground where drainage can be allowed due to the facilitation of the infiltration. On the other hand, if the water is not directed to the watercourse, there are possibilities that discharge water could be directed to a surface water drain such as rivers or streams, while on extreme occasions even to the sewer system. At some instances, the rainwater could be stored for future use or the enhancement of green vegetation in the buildings that harbours humanity to reduce the effects of the floods common in the urban areas. In this regard, the SUDS should be adopted to facilitate the achievement of risk management practices and strategies for the occasional flooding prevalent in urban areas (Warner 2007, p. 243).
The process of addressing the challenges caused by pluvial flooding considerably involves task that demands a thorough analysis of each approach. Adoption of means to create space for people implies that people in the rural areas do not have to bear the impacts of floods that take place in the urban areas merely due to their underdevelopment or low population. This implies that any strategy adopted should be environmentally just. Therefore, the implementation of the sustainable urban drainage systems would help to counter the effects of pluvial flooding in the urban areas as well as interference of the rural defences. Additionally, the SUDS would facilitate the growth of urbanisation while enhancing the needs of the risk management against floods. In this case, it implies that there will be high chances of making more space for people to live in by addressing the matter. Thus, two objectives would be realised in the whole process. These are pluvial floods management and creation of additional living space for people.