Global warming is the sociological and ecological changes that are caused by the rise of global temperatures. Global warming causes changes in weather patterns, leading to irregular rainfall seasons, snows falls and increase the activity of volcanism. It is one of the vital environmental challenges that people are facing today, but a condition that has an adverse effect to the whole world.
According to Keller (2007), global warming is a condition that is growing from bad to worse, and some of its negative effects have taken effect on the environment. The main cause of global warming is the increase in anthropogenic cycle. This is a condition where the pressure exerted by human chemical or habitual activities in relation to the force of natural process. It has many negative effects towards the environment ranging from temperature rise and fall, weather changes, acidification of ocean waters, melting of glacier, migration, health issues and many more adverse effects. All these effects are due to the rise of earths’ surface temperatures.
There are different activities associated with causing global warming, such as emission of carbon dioxide gases, the green house effect, deforestation and usage in chemical fertilizers among others (Deng ets al. 2002). Global warming has different negative effects on the environment, which include extinction of species, rise in sea level and massive crop failure among others. The subject of the paper is to analyze causes and effects of global warming.
The green house effect is the main cause of global warming. This is due to the emission of factory gasses or fumes such as water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane gas in to the atmosphere (Deng ets al. 2002). Most of these gases are as a result of burning of fossil fuels that emit the carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. When the sun rays hit the earth, some are absorbed by the gases. These gases act as a mirror and reflect back some of the rays to the earth, hence causing the heated atmosphere.
Castro (1999) states that deforestation is another leading cause of globalization. This is the process of cutting trees without replacing them with new seedlings. It is also a factor that is contributing to global warming in that the demand for the use of wood is high. Wood is the main material of making furniture, pencils, source of energy in the rural areas. Moreover, it is a vital raw material. The humanity nature needs it more with an aim to make the life of human kind more bearable. Cutting down of trees without replacing them destroys the carbon sink store of nature, affects the hydrological cycle, causes soil erosion, reduces the biodiversity of the rare species and destroys the natural balance of energy flow and nutrients.
Increase in the use of chemical fertilizers, as opposed to the traditional means of using manure has also been a significant cause of global warming. These fertilizers are rich in nitrogen oxides that have a high capacity of trapping heat than carbon dioxide (Deng ets al. 2002). The runoff fertilizers end up in the water bodies offsetting the balance of the water bodies. The pollution of water surfaces is as a result of human activities, there will be less oxygen in the oceans, and the acidity level will rise as well as the temperatures. This will kill the marine flora and fauna and reduce their reproduction rate thus the extinction of rare marine species will take place. This acidity will make the availability of fresh water extremely low.
Global warming has also been a leading cause of extinction of species such as those found in the water bodies. The change in the normal order of the ecosystem is as a result of global warming, different species of organisms are not able to survive the changes and the species end up becoming extinct. According to Castro (1999), the change of rainfall season will cause floods that will drown people, destroy their properties and cause disease outbreaks like malaria, cholera and diarrhea. When it does not rain for a long period, there will be remarkably little food for humanity. Consequently, health problems will occur.. Storms, fires and hurricane winds will occur leading to destruction of property, fear, stress and death of people (Castro, 1999).
Extreme changes in the temperature levels will cause more effects on the flora and fauna. Droughts and floods will increase, some flora and fauna species will become extinct, and ecosystems will face a radical change.
However, solving this problem in a collective responsibility of the human race to join forces as this will help in saving the world from the adverse effects that will affect every aspect of life globally. The production of green house gases is the key factor that is causing these problems. Its reduction will help in addressing this issue.
Stabilizing the production of green house gases will be effective when people reduce using charcoal or firewood as the source of energy but start to use the renewable sources of energy like bio fuels, wind and solar to run their daily activities. Increasing the forest cover will help as it will produce oxygen and use the carbon dioxide gas which is the main gas that causes global warming in a process known as sequestering (US National Research Council, p.4).
Reforestation is a way out in reducing the concentration of green house gases. Farming methods should change and use the methods that need inorganic chemical or no chemical application as this also contributes to the air, soil and water pollution. Clean ways of waste disposal will help in saving the pollution of the water masses and air pollution. This will prevent the ozone layer from destruction, which helps in regulating the temperature. Disposing of treated waste will help in reducing pollution rates.
A favorable environment is vital for the development of the world as this will reduce the life external stresses. This can only be achievable when global awareness about environment related issues is raised to the public.