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How the Japanese Community's Use of Limited Individual Utility-Seeking and Markets Differ From Chinese Authoritarian Laissez Faire and American Managed Markets
The limited individual utility-seeking and markets economies are those that the motivated by the communalism dominated over individual utility-seeking. The markets are regulated on communal basis with the state being conscious of the community interests as a whole. In this economy, the individual preferences are characterized by the communal behavior with people naturally expected to prefer Japanese products. The group's interests are put above personal interest in the economy. The labor supply in the Japanese system is an obligation whereby a good pay is not considered. The law of equilibrium gives priority to communal obligation which is different from typical equilibrium of market forces (Rosefielde, 2002).
On the other hand, the Chinese Authoritarian Laissez Faire is based on community authoritarian system. The resources are owned by the state wholly which provide the basis of state controlled markets through their provision of all public requirements. The governance of the state serves the interest of all citizens. The demand of the products is influenced by the state directives, policies as well as regulations. The supply of labor depends on policies with little interest on the wages to be provided. The markets are imperfectly competitive with priority given to communist party policies. Thus we can conclude that it is a slight development from the Japanese Utility seeking but with slight improvements (Rosefielde, 2002).
However, the American managed markets disorganize competitive arrangement and putting the forces of demand and supply as stipulated by the government. The American managed market is different from the China's and Japanese systems because they are individual based and totally depend on the forces of demand and supply including any social factors. They are affected by the state policies on taxes, import and export tariffs' and exchange rates. Therefore this economic system is entirely different from the above two economic systems (Rosefielde, 2002).
China's three primary economic mechanisms
These are among a range of processes that China has utilized in the process of evolution and transformation of their national economy. The first is the "marketization" and ownership diversification. This is the process through which the market is being influenced by forces or mechanisms which affect almost every segment of the economy. The initial plan in China was that the market was to supplement the state in provision of products and services but has gradually overshadowed it. Most of the prices would be determined by the central planning but the mechanism allowed forces of demand and supply to fix the prices. The market forces dominating the entire economy has even led to lack of job security in labor markets because of industries cutting down on their costs as per the market requirements and may resort to layoffs (Hassard, 2007).
The second mechanism is decentralization. The earlier economy depended entirely on the central decisions made by the central government. However, the reforms through the decentralization mechanism have led to the state investment decisions to be delegated to the local governments and provincial levels. The reforms has eroded most of the state decisions giving way to the people led decision making process at the local levels. This resource decentralization mechanism has encouraged the local authorities to collect revenue and share it with the central government. Also, the mechanism has given the local enterprises the power to manage their own businesses in relation to their efficiency and profitability (Hassard, 2007). The well managed decentralized projects and enterprises add to give a well market driven economy.
The third mechanism is the introduction of competition. The China economy has been driven by active competition which has basically promoted secondary economy and private businesses development. The legalization of private enterprise development and allowing them to grow outside the central planning system encouraged competition among the market players.
The lack of regulation of the market through central government gave the opportunity to the non-state enterprises which competed locally as well as internationally (Hassard, 2007). The obligation play equal role in America.
Russia's Shock Therapy and Why It Was Destructive
This is the transition at which Russia used to change from a state command economy to an economy dictated by the market forces. The Russia used a shock therapy which is the immediate shift from the old system and moving entirely to the new structures. This is the radical shift to the market mechanisms with the immediate dismantling of the state command structures. This is opposed to the slow step-by-step approach whereby the market system of economy is introduced to run together with the state command structures. During the process, the state structures would be eliminated slowly to give way to a fully market driven economy. However, the Russians decided to use the shock therapy approach due to the fact that they were so disappointed with the state structures and did not want to associate with it anymore. They saw the free exchange of goods and services without any government influence to be secret of their propelling economically and compared itself with advanced countries (Chubarov, 2001).
The problem is that the country did not carry out the real analysis of the circumstances that affected their country's economy before implementing such a decision. They totally believed that the radical shift could immediately improve the economy. The President outlined the directions of the shock therapy which was implemented quickly. The systems were changed quickly and within no time there was price liberalization. This is actually what caused the problems to the shock therapy because in a short time the prices were already sky rocketing. In a short while the citizens of Russia no longer afforded their basic needs and found themselves in poverty. Thus its economic effects ended up much devastating rather than improving the lives of its citizens. This led Russians to mistrust the government on reforms agenda because it had actually failed them in their shock therapy decisions made without consideration of all factors of economy (Chubarov, 2001).
Four Contemporary Systems Strategies
The contemporary systems strategies are the determinants of choices to be made whenever selecting systems to meet the organization's objectives. These strategies are very important to an organization because it determines the future of the enterprise. These include the Status Quo Strategies, TQM Strategies, Reengineering Strategies and Vision Institutionalization Strategies. The first strategy of our discussion is the Status Quo Strategy where all an organization needs is to maintain its current position. The main objective of this strategy is that the current systems do not change but the technology and processes applied ensure that the performance continue to the foreseeable future (Mahmood & Szewczak, 1999).
The second strategy is TQM strategies which is the total quality management process aimed at improving the quality existing systems. This may include the radical decisions made to change the entire business process or make a few changes where necessary. This strategy is characterized by gradual deals which are made on a continual basis which does not have an end. There are circumstances whereby the systems in place are effective but they need specific improvements to reflect on the quality of its output. This strategy often requires the managerial commitment, employee participation as well as adequate training so as to achieve a genuine TQM Strategy implementation (Mahmood & Szewczak, 1999).
The third contemporary strategy is the reengineering strategy which involves an entire radical transformation of the systems to achieve efficiency. This strategy is used whenever the fundamental processes of an organization are deemed to be weak and need an immediate overhaul to ensure its efficiency to the foreseeable future. The business process reengineering can be applied to different systems whenever it is required by an organization. The reengineering strategy application is at any time whenever an organization sees the need to replace existing systems for its business prospects are to continue its success and endeavors (Mahmood & Szewczak, 1999).
The fourth strategy is the Vision Institutionalization Strategy. This is a strategy applied whenever an organization has no or few business processes systems (Mahmood & Szewczak, 1999). Thus there is need for a vision to be developed on the systems to be set up and put in place for the organization to run successfully. This will need creativity and innovation so as to arrive and the vision systems to be adopted and utilized by the organization.
Index Number Relativity and Why It Is Useful Tool of Comparative Analysis
The index number relativity is the use of price weighs where a base is selected and the other situations calculated with its reference so as to arrive at a percentage for comparison purposes. This is a measurement indicator that shows how the countries are experiencing industrialization as compared to the counterparts. The index number relativity is a useful tool because it measures the difference in the degrees of industrialization among countries to give the general overview of the entire globalization. This makes it good for comparison purposes for countries and may be used to change processes and point out problems in a certain country if ranked lower in comparison level (Eckstein, 1971).
Distinctive Features of "Harmonist" Concepts of Ideal Security
Harmonist concept is a conviction that there is an ideal scenario whereby all human beings conflicts can be reconciled such as in Marx's full communism. In relation to international countries harmonist concept insists that any threat or conflict arising among nations can be resolved through reasoning or by a divine intervention. Thus the most conspicuous feature of harmonist is the belief of reconciliation despite the nature of the dispute. With a reconciled state the ideal security situation can be achieved within organizations and countries. The feature of leadership and multiculturalism helps in the recognition of harmonist concept that is possible to be achieved. The proper leadership in place leads to achievement of harmony and ideal security (Rosefielde & Mills, 2007).
How the World Might Be Moving Toward a Tri-Polar Military Superpower Regime
The process of the world moving to the tri-polar nuclear power is caused by two actor forces. The possession of nuclear warheads under START II will stabilize in China and the Russia reserves additional nuclear warheads through its passed deception culture. Therefore the absence of Beijing's own self-restraint could lead to the movements towards tri-polar nuclear superpower system. Thus the China and Russia form the two actors that can create the military superpower regime by the use of increased technology and their nuclear power (Rosefielde, 2002).
Struggle between the Forces of Efficiency and Abusive Power
The future can be conceptualized as a struggle between the forces of efficiency and abusive power in relation to the organizations and countries behaviors. The economies of several countries are struggling to achieve efficiency so as to defeat other countries and gain economic power over other nations. With the powerful economies, the other countries shall be forced to depend on them for support and as such will respect the powerful economies. On the other hand, there are those countries which can abusive their power of possession of weapons to proof that they are the most powerful nations in the world. The nuclear weapon is a possible weapon of power to be abused. Therefore the two forces of efficiency and power abuse characterizes the future trends among several nations.