The book Peace to End All Peace describes the failure of the Ottoman Empire. The book also gives an account on how the collapse of the empire contributed to the Renaissance and development of the Middle East. The fall of the Ottoman Empire was brought about due to the partitioning of the empire. After the settlement of the French and the British powers at Istanbul the Ottoman government failed totally. After its collapse, it signed the treaty of Sevres in the year 1920. The Allies were the Ottoman Empire’s enemies; they prompted themselves to make negotiations before the treaty was signed.
A treaty known as the Treaty of Lausanne was signed in 1923 and proved to compact the bigger number of territorial issues than the Treaty of Sevres. The French and British powers divided the eastern section of the Middle East that is referred to as Greater Syria within them through the Sykes-Picot Agreement. The book by David Fromkin gives an account of many differences between the powerful countries. It makes it difficult to recall which countries had good relations with others and which were the enemies. In the book A Peace to End All Peace, there is an Ottoman-German Alliance. This alliance led to the entry of the empire into the war (David 25).
Russia remained the worst foe of the Ottoman Empire since 1828. The ties between the French and the Russian authorities also destroyed the rapport between France and the empire. Ahmed v the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Pressure from Germany authorities and the sultan's advisor made the Ottoman Empire align with the central powers. The Orient Express had plunged to Istanbul since 1889, and before the world war, the sultan agreed to a plan of enlarging it to Baghdad in the help of German protection.
The sultan’s idea was to help in building links between the empire and the developed Europe. The German authorities would benefit through easier access to its African colonies and markets of conducting trade in India. German prevented the empire from entering the Triple Entente by persuading Bulgaria and Romania to join the central powers. The Ottoman Empire entered the war through the side of central powers after having signed a secret treaty. This was a day after German declaration of war over Russia. Several Turkish officials, who held higher ranks, including Grand Halim, signed the treaty.
The division of the Ottoman Empire included the watershed events of the second constitutional era and Young Turk revolution. The development of the Middle East is based on the First World War, the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. David Fromkin gives a clear account of this. Developments in the Middle East started with new technological advancements that solved the problem of communications and travelling. The steam engine was developed transforming the way in which trade and other businesses were carried out. The advantage of the steam journeys is that they could be predicted and therefore, avoiding any inconveniencing (David Fromkin, p.25).
Transportation of heavy loads became easier. It reduced the number of days required to travel along the Istanbul - Venice route from eighty-one days to ten days. The Ottoman space was partitioned into wheeled and non-wheeled European provinces. Developments in the Middle East region intensified agriculture. The communities grew various types of crops as well as kept the animals for production of the milk and wool. Trade also intensified, because communities like Balkan travelled to Anatolia and Syria to sell cloth made of wool. David Fromkin attributes the conflicts that make the region chaotic. That is considerably caused by the assumptive manipulation of the people and regions provoked by tyrannical aims of the Triple Entente.