- Reciprocity is a psychological factor that describes the exchange of good for good and bad for bad. It is a way of appreciating whatever one has been given or showing discontent about an issue.
- For example, if one is given a free sample of a product, he or she is likely to buy the product as a way of appreciating whatever he/she has received.
- Consistency is the ability to repeat a given episode over and again to achieve a particular outcome. Someone who is consistent will pursue a dream without failure.
- For example, if one wants to pass examination, he/she will have to attend classes consistently without boycotting any class.
- This means doing what the society recommend. In this regard, one does whatever other community members do. For example, if the community practices circumcision, then any of the members will conform to the act.
- The word source is used to define an origin of a substance or information. It is where something is drawn. For example, civilization is the source of erosion of traditional practices among the people.
- This is the extent to which information is reliable and dependable. People normally like credible information. For example, the credibility of evidence that one gives in court could assist in making judgment.
- Likability is the appeal of an object to an individual or preference for an item for its physical outlook. For example, the appearance and color of the sculpture increases its likability compared to other items on the display.
- Honesty is the level of truth that a person displays in doing his or her work. It increases one’s reputation among other members of the group.
- For example, an honest person could easily get elected to become the group’s treasurer. The reason is that the people will have confidence in him to take care of the group’s funds.
- Message is a piece of information that one sends to another in written or verbal forms. It displays an innate idea that one needs to express to his or her colleagues, whether the recipient is near or far away from the sender.
- A message could be sent as a letter or by word of mouth. For example, one needs to respond immediately to the message he/she receives from a colleague. This is due to the fact that the message could be demanding urgent action to save a situation.
- Length is the distance between two objects. It usually measured in feet, centimeters, meters, kilometers, yards, and miles. For example, the length of a football field is 360 feet or 120 yards, in the U.S.A.
- Basically, presentation order is a way of scheduling events in sequence so that it does not bring confusion to listeners to ease evaluation.
- For example, in a deception study, the presentation order of cue and target matters depicted the procedure that the researcher used.
- In the research findings, the deceptive conditions such as target-cue and cue-target procedures indicated medical anterior negativities. However, the negativities varied depending on the presentation order.
- An audience is the listeners who follow a particular story or presentation. For example, When Lincoln joined the country’s presidency; he immediately understood the business environment and engaged the leadership into the conversation to take care of the issue. His speech really attracted the attention of his audience both in America and outside the country.
- In fact, other than adopting appropriate leadership, the country under Lincoln’s leadership initiated innovative efforts in the economy.
- This became apparent in the leader’s consistent remark about the country’s development, possibly a famous invocation that many countries would use in attracting the audience or readers.
- Under the pragmatic leadership of Abraham Lincoln, the country had a magnified and transformed work of its citizens, whose creativity was relatively inspiring. Although fascinating, the approach was used in the country in order to depict an unusual setting as many states did their work.
Need for Cognition
- As people progressed, they need a sense of cognition and belonging to a family, get affection, work groups, and relationships.
- From a psychological perspective, responding to the cognition, belongingness and love needs for cancer patients is very important.
- For example, the need for cognition helps in treating initial cases of behavioral changes in a person and making referrals to other physicians for further examination those of high magnitude, especially the one that could cause complete psychological disorder will be the best course of action. This makes cognition very important in a human’s life.
- Self-monitoring is a situation where one looks at him or herself against hazards or as he or she progresses after illness.
- In the case of patients, consistent self-monitoring helps in evaluating the way, in which the affected person responds to medication.
- Positive response would be shown through improvement of the patient’s health condition, while negative response would be manifested by the side effects of the medication.
- For example, the patients carrying out self-monitoring should be free and encouraged to report any unusual condition to his/her doctor for further instruction.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
- As a consistency assumption, cognitive dissonance theory outlines the relationship among various forms of cognitions.
- Festinger developed this theory to explain the relationship among consonance, cognitions and irrelevance of a person’s behavior.
- Insufficient justification is evidence that cannot prove a case. In most cases, issues can only justified using reliable sources and positions.
It means that justifications might not be made haphazardly by mere propaganda, but using facts and explicit descriptions.