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 Introduction

This paper seeks to study the network security in the United States of America. It seeks to give a detailed description of the network security of this area, the technologies involved and the future trends of the network security in the United States.

Network Security

Network security in the United States is a computer system that is used to protect sensitive information for homes, businesses, organizations and the whole country as well. The breach of the network security in the United States can cause damage to the security of the home, reputation of the business and serious damage to the national security of the United States. In this regards, network security is a very sensitive issue that needs to be looked in to. The national security threats that are faced by the Government are a threat to the economic policy, the military actions, diplomatic engagements, and other domestic institution reforms. The national security in this country not only try to protect the network security but also try to explore the international development  and the trends in the security system that may draw attention to attackers. The United States is dedicated to create a network security which can operate within the international system and get rid or put under control all the potential threats to the national interests. The United States intends to use all means necessary to get rid of this vice. The means include; economic, diplomatic and military means. In this way, the government will be able to disable and get rid of all the terrorist networks deny them access to the more sensitive material through the military and economic interventions. The use of these means will also help the country resolve conflicts, resolve international trade barriers, create and form international partnerships and improve the security agencies. (Pariser, 2011)

It is important to note that network security is related to information security which is applied to computers and networks. The objective of these securities is to protect the sensitive, important information from theft, corruption and natural disaster. Network securities are collective processes that mechanism which protects sensitive and valuable information from publication and tampering .The protection of this information is done through different strategies and methodologies. In the United States the network security is based on logic. This simply means that the system is designed and applied with security in mind. Thus it tries to impose restrictions on unauthorized intrusions. These networks are created in a computer operating environment .This operating system is capable of maintaining its own executions and protecting its applications from malicious intrusions. The US uses secure coding in the network securities to protect the system from intrusions. On 1st April 2009, Senator Rockefeller, introduced the ‘’cyber security act 2009- S 773’’This bill was intended to increase the connection or collaboration between the public and private sectors in the matters concerning network security. The senator suggested that the national security and the economic prosperity of the United States depended largely on the stability, integrity of communication, stability, and information infrastructure. He reminded the congress that these aspects are held by both the public and the private sectors in the United States of America. However, there were other controversial parts in the bill which raised and attracted criticism from the congress. These controversial parts were paragraph 315.This paragraph allowed the president the right to ‘’ order the limitation or shut down the internet traffic to and from any compromised federal Government or any other critical infrastructure information system or network’’. This section in the bill raised and attracted different views and reviews on the same. Critics suggested that this bill was intended to promote a very dangerous approach that would see a sitting president favoring a certain group over his response. According to Yvette, a representative of the international cyber crime reporting agency, this particular bill seeks to keep the current congress informed on the nature of the information infrastructure, cybercrimes and end users from all over the world. Yvette insists that the bill only directs the president to give priority in instances where assistance is needed to improve the legal, political, judiciary and the enforcements n relation to cyber crimes. However, Senator Susan Collins attributes this controversial statement to the fact that it will narrow the existing broad of the president over the security networks. (Stuttard, 2011)

It is significant to note that the United States division of defense relies heavily on the network security. This is because they rely on complex information that is related to the countries weapons, tracking and identifying enemy targets and mobilizing the entire defense force. The department of defense in the United States uses the internet and other computer networks to enhance communication and sensitive information that is related to the high tech security system. Any exposure this information could cause a very big and huge threat to the United States Government and put the lives of the citizen and the whole country at risk. However, there is an increase in the intrusion of security networks which poses a very big threat to the department of defense in the United States of America. The GAO report on information security in the year 1996, reported that the 1 out of 500 attacks to the security systems are detected and reported. This simply means that the attackers have found ways to steal, modify, destroy important data, and disable the security system. Such security systems have posed a very big risk to the national security. (Mithic, 2005) This is because the hackers or terrorists could find a way to disable and disrupt the national security infrastructure. The GAO report suggested, advised and recommended that the Government should increase the protection against such intrusions for the good of the country and the citizen of the country. The first step would be to increase and introduce training of the network system to the administrators and other parties that are involved.

Global Trends in the United States

Research on the global trends of network security in the United States, showed a close collaboration between the concerned parties .The concerned parties in view are the United States Government specialist and the network experts who work outside the Government. These global trends are their judgments and decisions that will help to shape the whole world. According to Lawrence Gershwin, in the year 2015, it is anticipated that the whole world could experience quantum improvements in the information technology and other technologies which are related to network security. In this regard, the information technology will be the main block or the building block to help empower non state or people who do not work for the state. This fact is supported and agreed on by many experts on the same. Most of the experts’ term it as an information technology revolution that will represent the transformation of the globe. This is because there is an increased integration and fusion in the technology that will most certainly increase revenue and technology investments on the same. These integrations and fusion will also help to encourage and stimulate innovations in many other developing countries. (Aheran, 2010)

The global network security will have to be driven by many different aspects. These aspects include; flow of unrestricted information, different cultural values, availability of goods and services, ideas and globalization. If this is achieved, the globalization will have many benefits to many people from different countries all over the globe. These benefits include; political stability, industrial revolution, financial volatility and bio technology. However, there are many challenges that would have to be faced and overcome. These challenges include challenges such as cyber threats, the United States network targets, foreign capabilities and other potential actors and threats. The director of the central intelligence in the United States confessed that the United States is the most reliable, the most independent and the country with the best dominance in information technology in the whole world.  (Gershwin, 2001)

However, he added that the United States remains vulnerable to many different threats to the information system. He attributed the vulnebilities to the fact that the computer based information could provide an avenue for the enemies of the state. This simply means that the computer based information could tamper with the United States military and thereby degrade the conventional military power. He also attributed that the cyber threats could have a big impact on the United States military, economy and infrastructure. This threat could be launched from anywhere in the world. In the recent times hostile cyber activity is blooming. Many cases of intrusion by outsiders are increasing in number.

These factors could have a very negative impact on the America national network security. Other information from Industries and other information technology experts suggest that the networks have not only become more vulnerable but have also become the target of foreign cyber attacks. Many professionals and experts have tried to come up with or invent ways by which to control the network threats. The experts attribute the cause of this vulnerability to the fact that in the recent times there has been growth in connectivity amongst secure and insecure networks. This has lead to the creation of opportunities for unauthorized persons to intrude into the computer systems. They also suggest that the complexity of the network is growing so fast as compared to the ability or the expertise to protect and identify illegal activities and critical nodes. The other factor is attributed to the fact that the United States Government is employing computer experts that reside from different parts of the world. This has posed a threat to the security system. This is because some of the employees are from the potentially threat countries. Advanced technology and other tools used in the operations very common and widely known. These have given the potential hackers technical cyber capabilities against the United States network. It is important to note that hackers use sophisticated tools and are experts in information technology. They obtain information from a computer network through probing, penetration, exploitation or attack. The hackers use tailored strategies and remain anonymous. In this way it is difficult to tell who they are and which country they reside in. (Walker, 2011)

The other group that is a challenge to the National network security is industrial spies and organized crime groups who pose a threat to the United States network security. The industrial spies and the organized crime groups carry out espionage and theft that involves a lot of money. They also tamper with business proposals. This is because they intend to compete with the bids or want to place the products in the market. Their main aim is to still and attract as little attention as possible from the law enforcement in the United States. Therefore, they lead high profile disruptions in the network securities of the United States Government. Terrorists are also a big threat to the national network security.

However, terrorist pose a limited threat to the network system. This is because the terrorist come from developing countries which are not completely developed in the computer networks. All these threat are serious threats to the United States network but the Country is committed to create cyber tools and technologies that will be used for offence and defense. It should be noted that there has been a development in the security tools which have helped to protect the country from remote and extensive inside threats. The threats that have been posed to the United State have raised many questions such as; should the country rely on computers when it comes to matters related to military weapons? A recent report from the CIA has suggested that advanced technology will limit the adversaries from targeting what they think or that they perceive as vulnerable and instead engage the United States forces directly.

Technologies Involved in the United States

Numerous technologies are involved and used in the United States. Some of these technologies include technical technologies such as third generation mobile telecommunication, wireless internet mobile services among many other technologies. Third generation mobile technologies are network systems from mobile phones. These services have reached the international level and help to serve telecommunication between many different countries in the globe. The specifications of this network are set by the international telecommunication union which is based in the United States of America. These services offer a 3G wireless network that helps in the telecommunication. However, there are some standards that this network security is required to meet. (Egbretson, 2011) The standards include;-The UTMS standard. This standard is used in many other countries such as Europe and China. These standards are offered to phones which share the same infrastructure or are created and design by the same manufacturer. This standard also requires the mobile phones to have new frequency brands, compatible transmissions, higher data rates, and long tem evolution. Evolutional standards are also a requirement for the mobile phones. This simply means that the networks of the phones should have compatible extensions to the pre existing 2G networks. All the mobile phones must also have frequency allocation and new network hardware. (Saunders, 2011)  Thus the network used in the phone technology must fulfill all the standards that are required by the Government. However, the 3G has been a technology that has been slow. Its adaptation by the globe at large has been very slow especially in the developing countries. Most times the mobile phones do not follow all the requirements and specifications. For example, some mobile phones do not use same radio frequencies. This gives room for intrusion and hackers to interfere with the networks. In the year 2000, the United States published immutable laws of network security. It is important to note that the administrators of the computer network security have their own laws while computer users have different laws. The user laws are about the nature of security and not the products used for security purposes. Security is only possible if the security system used is easy to understand and simply to administer. In this regard, if the computer network security is not taken advantage of then there will probably be an intrusion on the same. Thus the most secure computer network is one which is well managed and administered. The first law that applies to the users is ‘’ nobody knows that anything bad would happen to them until it does’ ’this law simply applies to the people or users who have disregarded partnering with the network security in the United States. The law simply tries to bring to light the fact that network security is important in the protection of sensitive information in a business or an individual. Hackers always look for one weal in or loop hole, then they intrude and hack into the computer network. This could pose a risk to the specific business and other related businesses.

Therefore, it is important to implement, create and develop a security network system that will protect the businesses from unauthorized intrusion. The second law is ‘’ security only works if the safe way also appears to be easy’ this law simply means that the user should ensure that the network system they have used is reasonable. The security network should be balanced between the productivity and security. Therefore, the security system that is used should add value to the users and not remove value and instill fear. The third law is ‘’ if you do not keep up with security fixes, your network will not be yours for long ‘it is important to note that most software contain or have bugs. These bugs can be used against the business or company if they get into the wrong hands. Many experts have suggested that sometimes it does not matter how secure the network is. This is because it can easily change over night. In this regard, it is important that the user is always informed of the newest tactics and technologies to come up with new ways to deal with vulnerabilities. (Kobica, 2006) The forth law states’’ it does not do much superior to put in security fixes, on a computer that has never been secured’ this law simply means that security patches are useless if the user does not have strong administrator passwords. The fifth laws states’’ eternal vigilance is the price of security’ this law refers to the configuring of event logs. The sixth law states’’ There is really some people who are out there trying to guess your password’’ This law tries to alert the user to the fact that there is a possibility that an intruder might be trying to intrude into the scheme. It is significant to note that password is a security code for the network system. A lousy password makes it easier for hackers to hack in to the network system. A strong password on the other hand will act as a protection against the intruders or hackers. The users should also use authentication to strengthen the password. The seventh law states’’ the most protected network is a well administered one’ it is important to note that intruders exploit misconfiguraitons and not the software. Thus it is necessary that the user has documented procedures as well as software tools. This will help to manage the operation of the network. The eight law states’’ The complexity of protecting a network is directly relative to its complexity’ this law refers to the complex networks that are difficult to administer. In such networks, the user should start from the architecture of the network system. The user should therefore know all the points in the network system. The ninth law states’’ Security is not about risk avoidance but taking risks’’ It would be unrealistic for the user to avoid all the risks. The user should instead accept that there are risks and work out ways to deal with the risks in the network security system. The last law states’’ Technology is not a panacea’’.This simply means that technology does not guarantee security but security is born out of policy and technology. (Zalwiski, 2011)

Conclusion

This paper has described in detail the network security in the United States of America. It has also outlined the technologies used in the United States and highlighted the future trends in the area.

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