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Psychoanalysis is the study of human perception and behavior in relation to their environmental stimuli. In psychoanalysis, human psychology sometimes conflict with the needs and environmental condition, a situation that could lead to minor or severe diseases and injuries (Freud & Hall, 2012). Environmental Squalor Carcenogenics infested by children are considered as the main cause of cancer among the affected people. As indicated in the case, the immediate impact of such environmental condition made many Arkansas children and adults died from cancer due to high Arsenic levels in the air and soils. Such environmental conditions case cancer and have persisted in most parts of Arkansas, and this is a major challenge the state and others are facing.

One of the psychoanalysis used to describe the essay is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Under this model, Maslow explored the people’s needs and how it impacted on their lives. In this case, the focus is on exploiting the basic human needs. He identified the key stages of human need as one grew into different stages, forming a pyramid. It means that at different stages, there are specific needs of the people falling under that category. The variation of needs among the people cause several problems in different environments due to the presences of different Arsenic levels in the air and soils.

The stages in order from the bottom to top respectively include biological and psychological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem and self-actualization. The scramble for those needs cause conflict and could lead to the people contracting diseases from the larger aspects of the environment.   

Biological and Psychological Needs

This is the initial stage of human needs, in which one requires the basic things such as food, air, shelter, drink, sex, warmth and sleep (Russell & Cohn, 2012). At this stage, the person becomes more aggressive to meet the basic needs. As a result of the increasing Arsenic levels in the air and soils, it is easier for the people to be affected by cancer that leads to terminal sedation and death. From a psychological perspective, terminal sedation is morally right since the patient consents to it before its execution, and it is a method of letting the terminally ill patients die rather than killing them directly.

Terminal sedation involves administering high sedative doses so as to relieve the patient from severe physical distress and it makes him/her unconscious till death. In fact, termination sedation is allowed in cases whereby it is the only means to relieve the patient’s suffering. Under such circumstances, it is neither immoral nor unethical and the doctor is at liberty to administer high doses of sedatives to the terminally ill patient. Contrary to cancer, terminal sedation can be regarded as a way of letting terminally ill patients die (Owen, 2006). However, cancer can be regarded as direct killing because the doctors administer lethal injections and drugs to the patients. Holding to the view that terminal sedation is morally permissible should not stop someone from debating the permissibility of cancer since the intention of carrying out “mercy killing” is based on the patient’s consent with an aim to relieve him/her from incurable diseases such as cancer.   

Safety Needs

This is the second need in the Maslow’s hierarchy. Ones a person has acquired the basic needs, he or she will be confronted with the desire for safety in terms of protection, security, law, stability, order and limits (Russell & Cohn, 2012). Increased human activities lead to high Arsenic levels in the air and soils, which are responsible for cancer cases. In order to understand moral and ethical controversies surrounding environmental safety and its impact on human health, it is necessary to agree to the fact that a person can engage in an action that is morally permissible, but he/she is still morally blamed for it. For example, a person who carries out production that leads to environmental pollution could find him or herself in problems. Production is morally permissible, but the person will still be morally blamed for the consequences of the production, especially when it causes pollution.

When Arkansas children and adults are dying from cancer due to high Arsenic levels in the air and soils, the people causing environmental pollution have to be held accountable for the sub-sequential terminal illnesses. For instance, a terminal cancer patient whose lung is failing has been on the respirator for a long time, undergoing extreme pain and suffering might request the physician in charge to remove him from the discomfort of respirator (Owen, 2006). In this case, it would be morally permissible for the doctor to respect the patient’s decision not to be put back under the discomfort of the respirator. In this regard, both air and soil must be safe. Therefore, safety needs become paramount for all the people.

Belongingness and Love Needs

This is the third stage in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. As people progressed, they need a sense of belonging to a family, get affection, work groups, and relationships (Russell & Cohn, 2012). From a psychological perspective, responding to the belongingness and love needs for cancer patients is very important. For instance, treating initial cancer cases and making referrals to the physicians for further examination those of high magnitude, especially the one that could cause complete psychological disorder will be the best course of action (Owen, 2006).

Esteem Needs

The need to realize the most in an individual leads to the struggle for achievement, reputation, status, and responsibility in society (Russell & Cohn, 2012). However, in the process, many people loose a sense of direction and do not get guided by moral leads in the pursuit for success. The psychological variables in different people could lead to irresponsible pursuit of individual interests, leading to interference with the air and soil. This could lead to environmental pollution, which may cause diseases such as cancer. In this situation, the producers’ actions are still morally right, not because they seek to achieve the highest quality (Owen, 2006). Basically, it is wrong to risk the life of others from pollution, only to support the terminally ill patients later. Indeed, it is unethical and morally erroneous to prolong life of those terminally ill patients who want to die.  In cases concerning cancer, it is expected that at the end of production, the safety of children and adults must be guaranteed, therefore those exhibiting such conditions should be given due attention. For example, children with psychological illnesses are likely to suffer from cancer because they might come across high Arsenic levels in the soil and air, others with minor psychological problems put under counseling. This should result to manifestation of good behavior in the schools within the town.

Self-Actualization Needs

In this situation, self-actualization is the highest level in the Maslow’s hierarchy. At this stage, the person’s interest will be directed to growth and fulfillment, sometimes without considering the interest of others (Russell & Cohn, 2012). In fact, those in this stage are at the helm of production, live in affluent areas, but pay little attention to the environmental matters such as pollution of soil, air and water. Mostly, the consequences of their actions contribute to the increasing cases of cancer among children and adults. This happens despite the fact that they are the people who are directly and indirectly responsible for reducing pollution, financing, providing expertise services such as counseling, and serving as a role model for the children and providing a favorable environment that for the adult and child’s positive psychological development (Owen, 2006). For instance, those in the self-actualization stage should be curious about the environment and ensure that it remains safe for people. However, this is not the case since a number of them are preoccupied with capitalistic mindset that they do not care whether other people are suffering from the impacts of environmental pollution.   

Approaches from 4 Perspectives

An approach is a critical way of evaluating or viewing different assumptions to determine human behavior on particular issues. Approaches vary, depending on the matter being discussed. A particular approach could be described by one or several theories, but the assumptions remain the same. Therefore, the four major perspectives include behaviorist, psychodynamic, humanism, and cognitive psychology.

Behaviorist Perspective

This is a psychological conditioning arising from environmental stimuli (Freud & Hall, 2012). A stimulus from the environment will cause a particular behavior or response. As a result, the affected person gets used to such environmental stimulus or stimuli so that a repeat of the same will cause similar behavior.

Psychodynamic Perspective

This perspective is concerned with the subconscious mind of the affected person. An occurrence could cause denial once it is pictured at the subconscious mind (Freud & Hall, 2012). This means that the subconscious mind, when fed with signal, would cause the person to act in response to a stimulus on this part. 

Humanism Perspective

In this perspective, the entire body plays a role in the person’s conditioning. It emphasizes that the whole body will respond to respond to the environmental condition that is sensed or affects part of it (Freud & Hall, 2012). Therefore, the response is considered to be innate.

Cognitive Psychology Perspective

This is an experimental approach to social and human conditioning. It involves the impact of sensory perceptions and memory in determining the person’s behavior (Freud & Hall, 2012). The perspective therefore looks at the coordination of various organs to produce an outcome or behavior. 

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