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Study questions 1

1. Main elements

Sample population: the population sampled consisted of 100 death certificates which were randomly sampled in two California counties

Target population: the Next of kin of the deceased

Measured property/properties: The researchers measured the hand that the deceased population favored. They also measured the average age of the deceased who favored either right or left hand. They also measured the average age of death among women and men.

Target property/properties: the behavioral and psychological disorders

2. Correlation claims:

Measured correlation: the average age of death of right-handers was higher than that of the left-handers.

Target correlation: The susceptibility of the southpaws to variety of psychological and behavioral disorders that impacted on their life expectancy. Thus the southpaws died younger than the right-handers.

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3. State argument in proper form:

Background: The southpaws are more susceptible to behavioral and psychological disorders which affect their life expectancy hence die younger than the right-handers.

5. The researchers (Halprin and Coren) in the Lefty#1 study were careful not to move from their correlation discovery to the causal claim. Why might they have been reluctant to do so? Explain which premises of the casual arguments might they believe are weak? Which ones do they think are strong?

They investigated the death certificates and as such had no clear behavioral and psychological history of the deceased. The responses that were given by next of kin were likely to be unreliable and as such, provided weak evidence. The study generalized the results and did not investigate the cause of death; based the data on average age of death.

The cause of southpaws adjusting to use right hand for righting is very strong and was argued out of historical and behavioral adaptation to life conditions. Their use of right hand for righting made them likely right-handers which the study never assumed, but categorized them as southpaws.

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6. The researchers in lefty #2 found no correlation existing in study 1, and detected flaw in methodology. What's, the flaw, and which premises of study 1 correlation argument does it call into question?

The researchers applied direct interviews and did not rely on secondary information and data which was used in earlier studies. The results obtained showed non-significant statistical difference, which was contrary to earlier studies. The earlier study was also conducted in a wide range of ages. The study conducted also took data in a span of six years, and no randomization was used. Thus, it calls into question the average difference in age among the southpaws and right-handers who die. It calls into question the behavioral characteristics of the deceased that were analyzed to estimate life expectancy difference.

7. How did the researchers in lefy#2 avoid problems encountered in lefty #1 study? Which elements of the lefty#1 do they change when constructing their own correlation argument (the conclusion).

The researchers in the study avoided problems by estimating the percentage of the southpaws and right-handers who die at the average age of 65. They also avoided direct claim and estimate the result as not different statistically. They avoided generalization of the use of right or left hand and inquired the hands that were used for righting and cutting. They changed the statistical significance of the results and showed that there was no correlation between being southpaw and dying early (Dye, 2010)

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Study question 2: Why Men Will Risk All

8. The section entitled "Skateboarders More Daring in Front of Attractive Women suggests a correlation argument. Reconstruct it below:

Background: male judge rated participants differently to determine their tricks in the presence of males and female. The rating eluded that males were more attentive and daring when served by the female than when in presence of another male.

Results: the 18-years old lady was rated as 5.58 attractive on a scale of 1-7 by males. Routines were performed in the presence of male participant but things change in the presence of female rate.

Measured correlation: the more attractive the female raters are, the more daring the male participants

Accuracy premise: males change routines in the presence of females and they become more daring.

Target correlation: the more attractive females are rated higher

Representativeness premise: the photo of female makes the males to perceive her presence and thus her attractiveness which changes their rating.

Conclusion: more attractive ladies capture attention of males more than unattractive ladies

Study question 3: Cleverest women are the heaviest drinkers

The report discussed in the article concludes, "The more educated women are the more likely they are to drink alcohol on most days and to report having problems due to their drinking patterns." This suggests two correlations, each of which seem suitable to be the final conclusion of a correlation argument state in standard form, each

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Correlation 1: Attainment of higher education makes women more likely to drink alcohol frequently

Correlation 2: Women who are frequent drinkers are more likely to report when they have problems.

Although no results from surveys conducted are actually given, two correlations based on this data are provided (i.e. the measured correlations)-the correlations that are eventually used to support correlation 1 (that is, two different but related, measured correlations are used to support it). State in standard form these two correlations:

Measured correlation 1: more educationally qualified women are 71% more likely to drink than unqualified women; degreed women having 86% likeliness to drink alcohol.

Measured correlation 2: Higher educated women are 1.7 times likely to have drinking problems than women with low educational qualifications.

Although the authors of the study appear to be fairly confident in their discovery of the correlations, the last few paragraphs (as well as a few other up) indicate they are reluctant to make a causal claim based on them. Why is this case? Which premises of a causal argument using correlation 1 do they think is likely to be false? Explain.

Better education related to alcohol consumption on the premise that the more educated women have more opportunities which exposes them to alcohol is false.  The cause of the reason was varied among a number of people who were contacted and this may have caused them to be reluctant in making correlations on their findings. They investigated the likeliness of the women to take alcohol based on childhood test scores. There are also reasons given as social lives which do not really link to alcohol intake and abuse (Dye, 2010)

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