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Periodontology means tooth genitive, and refers to the specialty of dentistry that studies organization of teeth, illnesses, and conditions affecting them. A bone graft also known as regenerative surgery done to create bone and soft tissues lost because of gum diseases. This is a treatment of periodontitis. People suffering from periodontitis lose gum coverage and bone maintenance around their teeth. The surgery performed to regrows the lost tissues. Periodontal diseases are in essence serious illnesses, such as periodontitis and gingivitis that affect the gums. If left unchecked or corrected, these gum diseases can extend around other regions of the mouth and lead to the falling off of tooth or teeth.

This disease is bacterial contamination that is invariable and interferes with both the bone and gums that support the teeth. It first starts with the existence of bacteria in the plaque, which is that colorless layer that forms on the teeth from time to time; make the gum to have some amount of soreness (Dorothy and Phyllis, 2007). There are three types of bone graft. The first type is autogenous, which refers to the process of taking bone from one location of a patient, and then using it to conduct implant. The second type referred to as allograft implying synthetic bone or bone extracted from a cadaver. The third is xenograft, bovine, or cow bone.

Why and how regeneration surgery performed?

The regeneration surgery perfoemed to regrow the tissues lost due to the periodontitis diseases. Prior to the surgery, basic periodontal treatment called scaling and root planning must be done. The teeth must be well taken care of by doing regular cleaning and ensuring eating of sugary foodstuffs is checked. Brushing and flossing regularly, preferably twice a day is encouraged. To sedate and reduce the pain during the surgery, a local anesthetic is used to numb the area for surgery. The objective of this surgery is to prepare or entice the body into reconstructing the bone and other structures that anchor a tooth to the jawbone. This is done by a periodontist who is a dentist specialized in treating and diagnosing gum disorders and diseases. The bone draft is done to reverse the bone destruction or loss caused by trauma, periodontal diseases or ill fitting removable dentures. It is also applicable to augment bone to allow implant placement or improve the fit and console of removable prostheses or simply to add aesthetic of the missing tooth (Aetna, 2002-2011).

The first thing the periodontist does is to separate the gum from the teeth to get access to the bone and roots. After accessing the roots, they are thoroughly cleaned. The defects left in the bone is then refilled with a graft objects and then enclosed with a physical barrier. The bone drafting materials that are normally applicable include the patient's own bone, cow bone, cadaver bone, and synthetic glasses. Among these materials, the best is the patient's own bone since it has the same structure thus increasing the rate of regrowth. Barriers are applied to avoid the gums from growing into the bony defect; these barriers are made from human skin, synthetic materials or cow skin. These bone draft for implant are normally taken from the chin or from the pelvis and shaped to fit the shape of the mouth. After the graft is fixed in place, the gums will be replaced over the area that grafting is fixed and then stitched to stick in place. Periodontal dressing or pack is then used to cover the area. For a period of six to nine months, the body seals the area with new soft tissues and bone, which eventually reattaches the tooth to the jaw.

Follow up is a very vital process in surgery or any other form of treatment so as to monitor the progress and correct any problems encountered. Sedatives or pain killers will be prescribed so as to help the patient to suppress pain that could be experienced after the surgery. It is very important that the mouth be kept clean after surgery to avoid formation of plaque that can cause the healing process to delay or create major complications (Jensen, 2006). Antibiotics are usually prescribed to prevent infections during the healing process. The swelling can be checked by applying an ice pack outside the area.

In conjunction with bone grafting, barrier membranes are used to stabilize the bone graft as well as prevent the gum tissues from interfering with the healing bone graft. The gums tissues grow at a high rate than bone, therefore, the membrane protect the bone graft from interruption before it matures.

Risk and benefits

Every surgical practice has side effects. The side effects are mostly transient and may not be a concern after sometimes. The possible side effects could include an increase to tooth sensitivities especially when it comes to cold things. Some will experience more space developing between the teeth after the surgery, longer looking and feeling teeth, possible transient restraining mouth opening, and in some cases causing jaw discomfort, bleeding or infection to the gum, temporary swelling. Some patients taking bisphosphonate medication are at high risk of having bone healing complications. The gums in the region that was treated may recede after sometimes. Sensitivity to cold or hot is a major risk and need to be controlled.

Other risks, which are associated with the process, are as follows even though they are not common. Death has been reported in some rare occasions, but cannot be totally ignored. Serious allergic reactions to the material whether synthetic or any other is also a risk, which must be put into consideration and some patients, develop respiratory issues after the procedures. In addition, damage to nerves or other tissues, formation of scar tissue, pain or itching, complication with incisions, inflammation and infection, and hematoma are also associated with the procedures though at a low rate (Roberts, 10th August 2009).

The surgery has helped many people who could have been toothless to enjoy the benefits of the teeth. This is one way of solving the problems of missing teeth in a more usual way than other practices. Bone drafting procedures and dental implants have a success rate of over 90%; this has made the procedures the most preferable compared to alternatives. Continuous teeth and bone loss and jawbone shrinkage is eradicated because dental implants replicate the natural roots of the tooth and restore jawbone structuring. The existing teeth are not interfered with during the bone drafting and dental implant.

This process that enables restoration of the teeth structures influence speech. In addition, it restores mouth shape or posture that would have been disfigured due to loss of teeth. It eliminates unnecessary use of debentures and tries to give a permanent solution compared to other processes. The process is less painful and applies proper techniques, which do not affect the healthy teeth. There are no constraints on which food can be eaten after the implant has been done. One resumes the normal use of his or her teeth as if they were original.

Conclusion

A bone graft also known as regenerative surgery is done to create bone and soft tissues lost because of gum diseases. This type of dentist surgery is the most effective compared to others and have fulfilling results. Though it has risks the benefits surpass them and it is work trying.

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