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Respiratory  system  can  be  defined  simply  as  a  system  of  organs  that  are  involved  in  the acquisition  of  oxygen  and  the  elimination  of  carbon dioxide   by  an  organism.  Respiratory  system  thus  gives  organisms  a  surface  area  for  gaseous  exchange  between  the  air  and  the  blood (Oduor, 2008) . Respiratory  system  anatomy  can  be  analyzed    in  two  parts: upper  respiratory  anatomy  and  lower  respiratory  anatomy.  The  upper  respiratory  anatomy  consists  of  organs  such  as  the  nostrils (external  nares) , nasal  cavity , nasal  vestibule , nasal  septum,  palate (hard  and  soft) , nasopharynx ,  pharynx , larynx  and  trachea. The  nostrils  contain  hairs  which  protect  the  organism  from  dust  , sand  and  insects. The  hard  palate  on  the  other  hand  separates  the  oral  and  nasal  cavities (Oduor, 2008) .

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The  lower  respiratory  anatomy  comprises  of  the  bronchi  which  is  a  branch  of  the  trachea.  There  are  basically  two  main  bronchi  which  branch  to  form  several  branches  called  the  bronchial  tree  which  forms  the  secondary  bronchi  before  it  enters  the  lung.  The  secondary  bronchi  divides  into  tertiary  bronchi  in  each  lung (Oduor, 2008).  The  tertiary  bronchi  in turn  subdivide  severally  in  each  lung  forming  smaller  bronchioles  which  control  the  ratio  of  resistance  to  airflow  and  facilitate  distribution  of  air  in  the  lungs.  The  bronchioles  in turn  open  into  alveolar  ducts  which  have  sacs  at  their  ends  called  alveolar  sacs.  The  sacs  are  in turn  connected   to several  individual  alveoli  which  serve  to  increase  the  surface  area  for  gaseous  exchange  in  the  lungs (Oduor, 2008). The  lungs  are  very  important  components  of  the  respiratory  system . Organisms  normally  have  two  lungs  which  filter  and  deliver  oxygen  to  the  blood  system. The  diaphragm  controls  the  pressure  and  volume  of  air  moving  in  and  out of  the  lungs (Oduor, 2008).

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When  an  organism  breaths  in, oxygen  enters  the  respiratory  system  through  the  nose  or  the  mouth.  This  oxygen  then  passes  through  the  larynx  and  the  trachea  which  enters  the  chest  cavity.  This  oxygen  enters  the  bronchi  and  then  the  bronchial  tubes  which  lead  it  directly  into  the  lungs (Oduor, 2008).  From  the  bronchial  tubes  , oxygen  then  enters  the  alveolar  ducts  and  then  the  alveolar  sacs  which  are  surrounded  by  blood  capillaries.  This  oxygen  then  diffuses  through  the  capillaries  into  the  arterial  blood.  When  an  organism  exhales , carbon dioxide  follows  the  same  route  out  of  the  lungs (Oduor, 2008).

Diagnostic  procedures  include  arterial  blood  gases (abg)  which involves  drawing  of  blood  from  an  artery  in order   to  measure  the  amount  of  oxygen  and  carbon  dioxide  in  it.  Bronchography  involves  an  x-ray  of  the  lung  using  radiopaque  dye  and  its  done  to visualize  the  bronchial  tubes. Broncoscopy  on  the  other  hand  involves  a  visual  examination  of  the  bronchi  using  a  device  called  bronchoscope (Oduor, 2008).   Chest  x-ray  is  also  a  diagnostic  procedure  done  by  picturing  the  lungs  from  the  back.  Other  diagnostic  procedures  include  a  complete  spirometry  which  measures  the  breathing  ability  of  the  lungs,  computerized  tomography ( ct  scan)  which  involves  examination  of  sputum  to  check  bacterial  growth  , laryngoscopy  which  is  a  visual  exam  done  to  the  larynx  by  use  of  a  laryngoscope , lung  biopsy  which  involves  extraction  of  a  lung  sample  for  analysis , Imaging  procedures : magnetic  resonance  imaging  , pulmonary  function  studies  which  involve  evaluation  of  volumes  and capacities, and  flow  rates (Oduor, 2008). Pulse  oximetry  which  permits  the  non - invasive  measurement  of  arterial  oxygen  saturation.  Sputum  cytology  is  another  diagnostic  procedure  which  involves  testing  of  sputum  for cancerous  cells.   A  tomogram  is  also  a  diagnostic  procedure  which  involves  a  roentgenography  of  a  few  layers  of  the  chest  to  examine  lung  fields (Oduor, 2008).         

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Surgical  procedures  include  adenoidectomy  which  refers  to  the  excision  of  the  adenoids.  Other  surgical  procedures  are :  brochoplasty  which  involves  a  surgical  repair  of  the  bronchus,  laryngectomy  which  involves  excision  of  the  larynx,  laryngocentesis  which   is  a  surgical  puncture  done  to  aspirate  fluid  from  the  larynx ,  laryngotrachetomy  which  refers  to  the  incision  of  the larynx  and  trachea  and   adenoidectomy  which  involves  an  excision  of  the  adenoids (Oduor, 2008)  . 

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Bronchography :-   word  root-  bronch / I , o  - meaning  bronchus

Broncho-  larger  air  passages  of  the  lungs

Graphy - the  act  of  recording   the  activity  of   an  organ

Bronchography - refers  to  the  act  of  recording  the  activity  of the  lungs'  air  passages (bronchus) (Scott, 2006)

Cytology - word  root- cyt/o - meaning  cell

Cyto  refers  to  a  cell

Logy - study  of

Cytology  refers  to  the  study  of  the  cell

Laryngectomy  - word  root- laryng/o  -meaning  larynx

Ectomy - the  surgical  removal  of  an  organ  or part

Laryngectomy -  the  surgical  removal  of  the  larynx (Scott, 2006)

adenoidectomy  - word  root - adenoid/o - meaning  adenoids

adenoid -  refers  to  the  pharyngeal  tonsils  situated  on  the  posterior  wall  of  the nasopharynx.  (Scott, 2006)

ectomy -  the  surgical  removal  of  an  organ  or part

adenoidectomy - refers  to  the  surgical  removal  of  adenoids

laryngocentesis - word  root  -  laryng/o - meaning  larynx

Laryngo - larynx

Centesis - the  act  of  perforating  with  a  needle

Laryngocentesis - refers  to  the  act  of  perforating  the  larynx  with  a  needle  (Scott, 2006)

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