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In order for an organizational development to be successful, there should be change and in organizations people are the critical factors as they are affected especially psychologically. Some will gladly embrace , some will accept as it is like an obligation and others will totally reject reason being that we are used to doing what we do and they become habits such that when these habits are broken we are affected.  There is a step of procedures that an organization needs to consider before they decide to implement change so that they do not just wake up one morning and decide that well it is time we changed. First, they should find reason for wanting to change, if there is a problem that warrants change and the finding the source of the problem. Secondly, they should decide on the specific change they require by looking at their future, third, put the change into practice and decide whether it will start from the top to bottom or vice -versa. Lastly, look at their progress before and after the change and evaluate them (Smith 2011).

Some of the change management models include the following

  • Lewin's force -field theory of change
  • The Kubler Ross transition cycle
  • The ADKAR model

The ADKAR model was developed by prosci in the year 1998 after research in companies undergoing change. In the ADKAR model, it is designed in such a way that it helps teams focus on very particular activities to achieve particular results. they achieve this through checking out on the reactions of the employees did they accept or resist the change ?this plan also helps the employees get accustomed to the change by helping them to transit by including in the plan specific actions to make it easier for them to cope with the rapid change . This model has the advantage of being adopted very quickly and very well because the employees will feel as part of it as they are taken into consideration. This makes have a lot of interest in it and as a result better results are achieved as compared to a model that just imposes rules on the employees .adkar notes that there are five key issues to be addressed when it comes to dealing with people especially employees. Making the employees aware of the need to change , making them have the desire to participate and support the change , give them the knowledge of how to change by letting them know how change looks like ,show the ability to implement the change daily and reinforce the change so that there is no retrogression on part of the employees . ADKAR is very beneficial as it makes us focus on the root cause of failure and as you use this model it is easier to identify where the problem is .it is also result oriented and it helps the employees focus their energies on the sector that is likely to produce the highest success (Miner 2007).

However it is not without its demerits. It has proven difficult for big companies to adopt it because it will take them a lot of time to do it and a good amount of resources will be spent while trying to reach each and every employee which is almost impossible for such a company. a close relationship is required to have this model run successfully.

In Lewin's force- field theory of management, Lewin describes this theory by saying that there are enough reasons for an organization to resist change. This is because of the structure, culture and control systems that have been in the organization for quiet some time and even if pushed, they will not easily accept change. At the same time it is of necessity that they change because of current trends in technology and even the environment that you can only meet its needs if change is made. This push and pull forces are always in opposition and it is upon the leaders of that organization to find ways of giving weight to the forces of change so that the resistance against it is toned down. Kurt Lewin organized his change theory into three steps commonly referred to as unfreeze-change -freeze. It was originally presented in the year 1947 and is still relevant today because many other models of change are based on this theory. the unfreeze stage involves bracing yourself to embrace change where it is important to understand that change is very necessary and if you do not accept then the organization you work with has no future . It is all about looking at the merits and demerits of the change you want to adopt compare and contrast them and if the benefits outnumber the disadvantages, then it is good to adopt it.

This is what Kurt caked the force -field analysis. The force field analysis is a way of saying that there are reasons for and against adopting a certain change but if the good reasons outweigh the bad ones, then it is well with us for the change to come. If this does not turn out to be true then we will comfortably continue with the old ways. The second stage transition, involves a process which is a kind of journey that people in an organization have to undergo to reach the desired state. It is the several changes that are made to reach that changed stage. It is like being 'unfrozen' as Kurt puts it and he says that this is the hardest stage as people are unsure of what to do. people need to be given time to get accustomed and work their way out .the heads of the organization should really support their staff during this stage by giving them training and allowing space for making errors. The third stage which is the freezing stage involves coming to a state of stability and comfort once the implementation stage is over and supporting it and ensure that it is maintained into the future so that people do not go back to the old ways .this model is quiet easy to understand and the processes give us an insight at a personal level so that we apply it even to our lives.  Kurt's model has been criticized because in today's world the change process won't take such a long time as he says and   that it is too simple a process than what takes place in reality.

The Kubler-Ross theory was originally used to help people who were undergoing emotional changes and it was later discovered that it applied not only to patients but also could be used when dealing with people undergoing sudden change .it is commonly known as the five stages of grief and was proposed by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross in 1969 . It describes the way people deal with grief especially when they are diagnosed with terminal illness like Alzheimer's (Merhag 2009).

The five stages are: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. It shows the emotional response that the staff of a particular organization may exhibit when faced with change or when they are expected to carry out a big step especially when you know that it will not be well received. Denial involves defense for not wanting to accept change, anger involves a situation where you think that the change is not necessary as the one you are under is working perfectly well. Bargaining involves the tactics of people to delay change. Depression involves the acceptance of the fact that change is certain and it affects one's relationships with others .acceptance involves that you cannot fight it so you might as well learn to deal with it.

Change in the workplace can produce sentiments like when one is bereaved. These emotions can be dealt with by telling it out the reasons for change, involve your staff, cater for any negativities as soon as they arise , give your staff time to digest the change and always be willing to understand them , encourage teamwork so that the whole change process can be a success. The Kubler-Ross model is however not without weaknesses. One of them is that leaders and the staff in organizations find it difficult to understand and identify with it. All these models are different because none of them looks exactly like the other though we can draw a few similarities here and there for example the ADKAR, Lewin's and Kubler-Ross models focus on people. All of them are very beneficial and will help an organization transit.

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