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A Constitutional Defense of the Death Penalty

The critical issue about the application of death penalty has been a nationwide discussion in the recent years. People have based their debates on the constitutional and the moral validity of the death penalty. Some people argue that the penalty ...

A Reflection of the Death Penalty

Different societies and groups possess a variety of traditions and norms that influence various aspects of their lives. While some traditions are acceptable to all members of a community, other traditions arouse diverse views due to their nature and ...

A Study of the US Justice System

Abstract The United States criminal justice system's sole purpose is to put into effect the laws of the State. The justice system in the United States is divided into three categories: federal, state, and military (Smith, 2010). The ...

Administration of Justice and Security Integration

Justice is where the citizen of a particular nation is able to access and enjoys their rights without any violation in a given century. Justice ensures that the citizen enjoys equal distribution of national wealth. They are able to access wealth and ...

Adversarial System of Law

The adversarial system of law is the system of law relies on each advocate on behalf of positions and a judge influential the reality. What is adversarial justice system? An adversarial justice system is the kind used in the US; the word adversary ...

Can Criminal Justice System Cause Victimization

Criminal justice system was believed and known to be a process through which justice is granted to offended people and help criminals change their bad behaviors by teaching them carefully and not affecting them in any negative means (Marie, 2001, ...

Capital Punishment

Introduction According to McCafferty (2009), capital punishment is the lawful inflict of death as a punishment for gross violation of law. He notes that this death penalty practice has been used since the sixteenth century. For instance, the ...

Case Analysis

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists (Southern) Ltd [1953] 2 WLR427 is a well-known English contract law judgment on the nature of an offer. The Court held that the exhibition of a product in a store with a price attached ...

Civil Disobedience

The best government is the one that governs the least or does not govern at all. Objections in a government can only be raised by the standing army that is the only arm of a standing authority. The government that voters choose to represent them can ...

Civil Liberties and Civil Rights

Symbolic speech refers to the non-verbal communication which is anticipated to pass on a concept, belief or idea. It has been ruled, on several occasions, by the United States Supreme Court that symbolic speech is a type of liberated speech. ...

Classical and Neoclassical Theory on Criminology

The classical and neoclassical schools of thought came into rise in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century following the enlightenment move that acted as a liberating force in the western world. The enlightenment thinkers came up with ...

Community Policing

Community policing refers to the process through which law is enforced by recruitment of a large enough team of community members to interact with and support the police force in identifying crime suspects and consequently lead to their arrest. ...

Correctional Misconduct of Prison Guards

Introduction The basic principles upon which the U.S. correction system is based are efficiency and fairness, so any compromise of them amounts to misconduct. According to Wolf (1), correctional misconduct is marked by various forms of criminal and ...

Crime and Deviance

Importance of Juvenile Facilities The rapid growth and development of the information communication technologies more specifically the internet has had both negative and positive effects on the human nature. One of the negative effects of the ...

Crime and Racism

The social well-being of the society takes into consideration its dynamics, structures and flaws. The dynamics consists of race, religion and financial status. The multiple platforms serve the point that people of all races are exposed to the same ...

Crime Scene Investigator

Crime scene investigators in America work toward investigating all kinds of crimes. They visit the scene in which the criminals accomplish their mission. They gather evidence which they find available in the place where the crime occurs. The people ...

Criminal Acts and Choices

A person may decide to risk violating the law after he/she has put into consideration his or her own personal situation such as need for money, personal values, and situational factors such as the affluence of the neighborhood and the degree of ...

Criminal Behavior

John Gotti became the most powerful crime boss in his era. He was famous for his flamboyant style and outspoken personality. He was the boss of the New York City Gambino crime family. He was later sentenced to life in prison without parole (Davis, ...

Criminal Justice

The advent of crime and criminal activities in the contemporary society remains as one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. In this respect, the government of the United States has formed different institutions to ensure that those people ...

Criminal Justice and Ethics

The case study presents an ethical dilemma for the assistant prosecutor. An ethical dilemma in the legal profession exists when there is a conflict of interest between the clients or ones stands to gain or lose financially or otherwise. The bar ...

Criminal Justice and Immigration

Criminal justice is a combination of practices and government institutions which are directed to uphold social control, mitigate and deter crime, or sanction those people who violate state laws with rehabilitation efforts and criminal penalties. The ...

Criminal Justice Application

Criminal justice is a government plan that is instituted in order to prevent and provide solutions for the occurrence of a deviant behavior in the society. Various   perspectives have been described with the intention of providing ...

Criminal Justice Assignment

From the scenario described where police officers entered into Andrea’s house to search for a stolen pendant, and in the process they recovered an illegal possessed gun, the statement that is most appropriate and accurate is (d), which states ...

Criminal Justice Careers

Criminal justice system consists of three main parts namely; law enforcement, which comprises the police; adjudication, which comprises the courts; and corrections which comprises jails, prisons, probation and parole. Of the three parts of criminal ...

Criminal Justice Discussion

In accordance with Wilcox and Cullen (2010) Criminology has had various factors that have highly influenced its development over the years. These factors provide lots of support information that enables people to clearly understand criminal ...

Criminal Justice DNA

The application of DNA test in human identification, as well as, relationship testing has become an integral part of criminal justice systems. DNA test can determine whether two or more persons are related and the nature of their ...

Criminal Justice Ethics

Introduction Any prison management system is required to operate within an ethical framework, irrespective of the management style employed. Cyndi (127) outlines two types of prison management styles which are authoritarian and bureaucratic ...

Criminal Justice Process

Introduction Being indicted with an offence is a bloodcurdling thing. According to law experts, the only thing that scares the accused person is the unknown outcome or the course the justice is going to take. To shed off some of this fears, it is ...

Criminal Justice System

Abstract This is a research paper on reward systems and how can they hinder the criminal justice administration. Reward systems are the systems used to reinforce behavior in crime offenders and make them better people. For an organization to act ...

Criminal Justice System

The Difference between International and Transnational Crime International crime refers to crimes which affect the safety or peace of more than one country or state, or a crime that whose nature is so reprehensible that it justifies and warrants the ...

Criminal Justice Systems

According to Virgo (2006), in a criminal justice system, there are various alternatives for incarcerating adult offenders depending on the magnitude of the crime committed. The sentences however vary from state to sate hence a two similar crimes ...

Criminal Justice Technology

Over the past years, technology has gone a long way in helping to emphasize discipline, decision making, in addition to, making sure that there is an equal enforcement of the law. August Vollmer, a champion of police technology, became a pioneer in ...

Curfew: The Band-Aid Cure

The largest source of unease and violence today are teenagers; they all group together and form gangs, steal cars, deal and use drugs, have promiscuous sex and become early parents, stalk, haunt, and probably aim to murder adults and non-compliant ...

Cyber Crime and the Fourth Amendment

For many that are involved in one crime or the other, cybercrime is a curse in the 21st century. There are many criminal networks that have been developed the world over and are involved in cyber crime. The potential revenues that can be earned from ...

Dangerous Sex Crimes

There are many types of sex crimes. Three of them are: a)      Sadism b)     Infibulation c)      Pyromania. Sadism is where one’s exercise of power over the other is mostly ...

Death Penalty

Introduction Avaliani (2010) indicates that death penalty is among the most controversial topics with various voices calling for its abolition. But noticeably a few ascending voices still exist in support of the capital punishment and that is why ...

Death Penalty Has no Place in U.S.

Capital punishment, the death row or the death penalty is an officially permitted process wherewith someone is condemned to death by the government as a penalty for a crime commitment. In each country which has authorized the death penalty there is ...

Decriminalizing Marijuana in Texas

Marijuana refers to “a dry, shredded green and brown mix of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves derived from the hemp plant cannabis sativa” (Reinarman and Cohen 837). Marijuana has both psychoactive and medicinal effects. In North ...

Deficiency Judgement for a Mobile Home

According to the provisions of the health & safety code 18038.7 the Californian law protects its citizens from any deficiency arising from a transaction involving sale of a manufactured home, truck camper, a floating home awaiting registration, ...

Detection of Forgery

Forgery can be defined as the false reproduction or alteration of documents with the intention of cheating. This may include the alteration of other peoples’ work without their authority or to execute writing so that it claims to be the work ...

Developmental Theorists

Developmental theorists help in explaining career offenders by helping the participants in understanding the career choice development theory and how it’s applied in dealing with the offenders. This comes with recognizing the four theories of ...

Distributive and Procedural Justice

From this subject, two significant variables of distributive and procedural justice may be analyzed related to their influence on job satisfaction. The two sets of null and alternative hypothesis may be stated as follows: The null: distributive ...

Double Jeopardy

Introduction There are different definitions of Double Jeopardy but the purpose of all definition is the same. A second time trial of a person for the same offense for which he or she was already convicted or prosecuted is known as double ...

Dred Scott Case

The case of Dred Scott shot to fame as it was successful in inciting unrest among the northern and the southern states of America during 19th century. It was a firing example of a gutsy initiative of a slave, who had no rights, and was not even ...

Dred Scott v. Sanford

In the case of Scott v. Sanford, the defendant was John Sanford who was given the responsibility of executing the estate of John Emerson. This control over the estate was given to him when his sister had gone to Massachusetts. The defendant took ...

Due Process in Juvenile Courts

The due process allows for procedural rights similar to those entitled to adults during a normal trial process. Due process also requires courts to follow a higher standard of evidence i.e. reasonable doubt. Adoption of due process in some states ...

England & Wales

The criminal justice system in England & Wales is institutionally racistArguably, the criminal justice system in England & Wales is institutionally racist and following this argument, there are several issues and happenings that have ...

Ethical and Legal Issues Presented in the Scenario

The store owner did not observe ethics when he moved across the red light. It is morally wrong to abet traffic rules. The police officer is morally right in stopping the vehicle that crossed the red light. The legal issue here is that the store ...

Ethical Dilemma in the Criminal Justice System

Ethical dilemmas permeate the criminal justice. At every level, in each segment of the system, people are exercising discretion that will impact on the fate of an individual and/or the security of the community. Incongruous laws, regulations, ...

Evidence of Crime

A consent search can be described as an investigation made by an endorsed person after the person under search/ subject of the search has willingly consented (Gaines, & Miller, 2008). Consent search is advantageous in that the subject has the ...

Excessive Use Of Force By Police

Introduction In most cases the Police officers are legally allowed to partially use force. The police superior and the public at large expect this due to the nature of the police duties that requires them to do so when appropriate. In order to ...

Federal Agencies

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a federal agency that handles criminal investigations. It is under the United States Department of Defense. It adopts an eavesdropping mission through telephone calls, radio broadcasting, and the internet in ...

Federal Election Commission

Following the overturning of a lower court decision by the Supreme Court in the case of Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission, many debates ensued. For many, the judgment in favor of Citizens United was an achievement, while some were ...

Feminist Theory and Patriarchal Understanding

An awareness of patriarchy is essential in the understanding of the treatment of women within the criminal justice system. There are many feminist theories that demonstrate the influence of patriarchy in the criminal justice system for both women ...

Forensic Science and Drug Criminality Cases

Introduction Forensic science has played an important role in regulating the daily activities of each member of the society. According to Saferstein (2011), forensic science incorporates laws that depict the nature and conditions under which any ...

Four Top New Stories

1) Irvin Vs. DowdThe case of Irvin is centered on a sequence of assassinations in Evanssyille, Indiana, since 1954 to early 1955. Leslie Irvin was arrested by local police in April 1955 announcing that he had confessed to the crimes. Lawyer of Irvin ...

Gender Discrimination

Gender discrimination is a vice that no community should condone. The case, Wal-Mart v. Dukes alleges that Wal-mart took part in a systematic discrimination against women in terms of its promotion and compensation conduct. This case has a long ...

Grandison's Testimony

I understand the criminal charges conferred against me by the state and the colonel who was once my master. I am hereby charged with running away from slavery and crossing the River into Canada where slavery is illegal. I am also charged with ...

Habitual Offenders

Are habitual offender laws targeting the right people for incarceration? Why or why not? Yes. This is because habitual offenders are subject to extreme penalty in most jurisdictions and thus most statutes provide for an increased penalty if a ...

Hacking Exposed

Introduction With Helen’s (2009) definition of computer crime as a criminal offense, which is primarily committed with computer being the major tool, hacking without doubt falls under such crimes. On the other hand, he defines computer hacking ...

Homicide

Crime scene examination should be done in a careful and logical way. This is to avoid disturbance or destruction of any available crucial evidence. So I will carefully observe the positioning and the surrounding area where the body is located. I ...

Homicide and Burglary

Homicide and burglary are offenses which should be punishable by the authority.  Ethical considerations which need to be addressed when investigating the crimes include: confidentiality, false evidence, communication with client, loyalty and ...

Honor Crimes

Honor killing or honor crimes is the associated homicide  of the family members or social group member by the counterparts  due to the belief by the architects that the discussed victim has brought  shame and sully upon their family, ...

How Should Cybercriminals Be Punished

Cyber crime refers to outlawed use of the network and a computer with an aim to commit a crime be it to copyright, hack or conduct cyber warfare. These crimes cannot go unpunished. There are several laws that have been put in place to curb this ...

Identity Theft

Introduction Vacca (2003) defines identity crime as a type of crime in which someone uses illegal means to obtain information regarding another person for economic gain in a way that involves fraud and deception. According to the United States ...

Impartiality of the Judiciary

The major purpose of the United States Constitution is to establish justice and limit the powers of both the executive and legislature. This is enhanced by creation of the independent judicial body. The judiciary is the link between people and other ...

In Defense of Torture

The great extent of suffering that criminal activities cause on innocent people warrants the adoption of any technique that presents effectiveness concerning the mitigation of unlawful acts. The extraction of information from individuals who plan ...

In the Crown Court

In any legal dispute the rules of court require the opposing parties to present their facts in court so that the court, through substantive law, may find the link between the statutory provision and the facts on hand. It is in the interpretation of ...

Incarceration of Juvenile Offenders

Introduction There is substantial evidence that juvenile incarceration in the US has drastically increased over the last two decades. However, there is insufficient evidence concerning the impact that incarceration has on the future of minor ...

Intensive Supervision Probation

The American criminal justice system has over the years undergone a number of transformations. One of the notable changes that have been witnessed in recent decades has been the adoption of intermediate sanctions away from the conventional ...

International Issues and Discrimination

The effect of globalization has seen people transcend international boundaries to live and work in foreign lands, where they face a myriad of issues, not common in their motherland. The issue of racial discrimination is one major international issue ...

Justice Administration

Introduction In every society, there exists a body that regulates justice and maintains social control. This body does not only deal with determination of guilt, but also focuses on the rehabilitation of the guilty. The responsibility of the justice ...

Justice Administration in Texas

The system of justice administration in Texas is said to be highly complex with up to five different layers of courts. This often causes serious overlaps in jurisdictions especially on cases to do with criminal laws. Indeed, the probation aspect of ...

Justice and Job

Job satisfaction by definition is a description of the level of the level of contentment an individual has relating to his or her own job. The so called happier people are those believed to be satisfied with their jobs. There is a direct ...

Juvenile Arrests

Juvenile facilities are those correctional centers designed to hold offenders aged below 18 years old. The purpose of these facilities is not to punish these offenders but offer rehabilitation services to help them reform and be better members of ...

Juvenile Delinquecy

A juvenile gang is an anti-social or any criminal act that is evident among children or adolescents. Gang members are known to commit violent crimes at a higher rate than that of non gang delinquents.  Those youths that are involved in a gang ...

Juvenile Delinquency

Most state court youth caseloads comprise of dependency, delinquency and cases involving status offenses. Probation officers have a role to surveillance and control as well as providing guidance and assistance to the probationers. Both duties of the ...

Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency has been on the rise in England in the recent times. In reference to Coleman and Moynihan (1996), delinquency is a violation of laws (usually by juveniles). However, there are many cases where the term 'delinquency' is used to ...

Juvenile Delinquency 2

The increase in criminal activities in most nations has increased the number of people being sentenced and sent to prison and other correctional facilities. It is therefore common to find out that most penal and correctional facilities around the ...

Juvenile Delinquency Causes and Prevention

It is easy to shake our heads in astonishment and disappointment when we hear the evening news headlines which are increasingly featuring the same old crime stories but with younger perpetrators. Juvenile delinquency has become a widespread, ...

Juvenile Justice in America

Introduction Juveniles are minor criminals basically due to juvenile delinquency. In most juvenile cases, they are not subjected to the jury rather to juvenile correction facilities. There are various theories that attempt to explain the causes of ...

Juvenile Justice System

Juvenile justice system should be enjoying its role as a rehabilitation system since its establishment about two Centuries ago. It was meant to help juvenile offenders serve their imprisonment at the same time cushioned from the bullying and ...

Juvenile Justice System in the United States

A controversial topic arising today is should Juveniles be severely punished if they have committed a serious crime. Precisely what is meant by a juvenile court is a difficult question to determine, for the term is much easier described than ...

Juvenile Trials and Crime Prevention

Many traits and habits are part of human nature such as nurturing, bonding with various relationships and feeling happiness.  However, there are also negative aspects such as feeling despair, jealousy and anger.  This anger, coupled with ...

Korematsu vs. the United States

Executive Order 9066 was issued in February 1942 by President Roosevelt after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Certain regions of the nation were designated military zones and it required exclusion of all Japanese individuals from those areas. ...

Labeling Theory

Labeling theory by Becker deduces that, when a criminal is being deviant, it is because of stereotypes of being seen as a criminal by minority. Having been involved in crime before, the trust the society had on the individual is eroded (Helfgott, ...

Letter to a Prospective Employer

The main objective of Bachelor of Science in criminal justice administration is to equip an individual and develop their ability to understand and resolve the problems confronting the criminal justice system. Learning of these courses actually ...

Life without Parole

There are different punishments that are handed out to criminals when they are found guilty of breaking the law. Imprisonment is usually the most common form of punishment, but it can vary in its degree of severity. The life sentence has been in ...

Lifetime Appointment of the Supreme Court

The fields of justice are the most critical in the handling of the lives of individuals, states and nations across the world. The work of the Supreme Court is to issue justice to all in a constitutional and lawful way without the influence of any ...

Magistrate, Legislation

A magistrate is a person who acts as a judge in the lower courts of the UK judicial system. They are not legally trained but mostly volunteers who receive an allowance for loss of earnings, mileage and subsistence; which are at a standardized rate ...

Meaning of Justice

Introduction Concepts of justice involve moral righteousness, which is bases on rationality, laws, religion, ethics, religion, fairness that comes with the punishments associated with breaching of these laws. Justice in social institutions is ...

Measuring Crime

Serial killing is a specific type of a crime; hence, the investigation process is different than in other cases. There are several kinds of data that can be sued in a process, and UCR data is one of them. It can generate a reliable source of crime ...

Memorandum

Abstract The state charges Priscilla Van Acker with the crime of first degree murder. The defendant is indeed guilty of premeditated murder, a crime that led to the demise of Lois Romney. The state has already established motive and prove that Mrs. ...

Memorandum: Marijuana Bill

As an attorney, I think you are aware of the repercussions of possession of Marijuana. Marijuana is an illegal drug in most parts of the globe due to its severe negative impacts. Women Rise Up serves as an empowerment organization aimed for the ...

Menendez Brothers

Menendez Brothers case study involves Erick Mendez and Lyle Mendez as two young men who were accused of murdering their parents. The young men's parents, Kitty Anderson and Jose Menendez, were fast asleep on the coach when the two sons entered the ...

Minors Should Be Treated as Minors

Death penalty is a verdict put in a court as a punishment for a crime (Kronenwetter 202). However, the capital punishment rules vary from state to state. There are states which fully accept the death penalty and there are those which outlawed it or ...

Murder Scene

Introduction Securing and evaluation of a murder scene is well explained by forensic science. According to Fraser (2006) forensic science is defined as practical application of a wide range of sciences to provide answers for questions of concern to ...

NATO Military Operations in Afghanistan

NATO is the acronym for the words North Atlantic Treaty Organization which is also known as the North Atlantic Alliance. It is founded on the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4th of April 1949. It is an intergovernmental military coalition whose ...

Opiates and Fraternities

In the countenance of the enormous form of religions, almost every person in the world believes in the comparable belongings: the endurance of strength, a life after death, sensations, and the blissful formation of the universe. As the universe ...

Plea Bargaining

There are many strategies that people have involved in at the process of trying to attain justice in the various courts of law. One is what we call plea bargaining. This act has raised many concerns, yet it has been perceived to yield exceptional ...

Police Misconduct

Police officers in any society are entrusted with the important tasks of law enforcement, provision of protection for properties and to maintain civil order amongst the members of the society. In order to fulfill their roles they are entrusted to ...

Police Organization Paper

Police organization paper A police force is a major component of the criminal justice. The police serve to deter crime and arrest criminals who are required for persecution in court. There are different police kind of police force and officer at ...

Policing in American Society

Introduction The police in the United States forms part of the law enforcing agencies according the Federal law.  Apart from the national police force, there are a number of policing organizations. There are two levels of police in the United ...

Policing in US Society

Policing refers to the act of providing guard or protection by a group of state employed police. The police officers are under different policing organizations within the United States. Since these police officers are under the government, there is ...

Pre-trial Stages of a Criminal Case

A criminal case has a number of stages, from arrest to sentencing and finally there being an appeal.  This paper gives an overview of what happens during the pre-trial stage of a criminal case.An individual is first arrested this can occur when ...

Preliminary Findings of a Crime Scene

Crime scene investigation refers to the meeting point of issues such as logic, science, and law. The process of dealing with a crime scene is extremely long and exhausting. Moreover, it comprises of relevant compilation of the situations in the ...

Prison Epistles

Epistles refers to the letters, in terms of Biblical books, that Paul wrote during his incarceration in Rome. Paul’s forerunner, Jesus, brought him to Rome so that he could complete the mission strategy that he gave to his disciples before his ...

Prisoners Rights

Criminal justice is a process or a system by which crime is mitigated, deterred and controlled. Criminal justice also helps to uphold laws, which protect accused persons and uphold their rights. The system represents and provides judicial ...

Probation and Parole

Introduction According to Howard (2007), probation is the release of an offender who has been convicted to the community without sending the person to prison. Such a person is then put under a program of conditional suspended sentence. Parole on the ...

Procedure Of Arrest To Sentencing

Self incrimination is confession of a crime committed the information gathered after questioning can be acted upon but not against the source in court. When John began incriminating himself, the police were to give what is known as a Miranda warning ...

Processing the Crime Scene

Introduction A good crime scene investigation involves the application of modern scientific methods, deductive reasoning and well established physical evidence which will enhance the determination of the exact events surrounding the crimes. The ...

Proof Requirements

An appellate court evaluates the decisions of a lower court. Appellate court receives the final judgment from the district court or a regulatory agency. The courts make their decisions in an appealed case either by affirming or rejecting the ruling ...

Punishment and Respect

Punishment refers to actions that are taken to reprimand people with offensive behaviors in a given group such as family, society or the nation. At the level of the country, punishment refers to actions that are taken by the country's legal body ...

Punishment and Sentencing Paper

The formal juvenile court system was founded in 1899 on the premise that youth are different from adults, and thus needs to be treated differently in the justice system.Youth,the researchers argued, had not yet attained several traits like ...

Punishment through Retributive Justice System

Restorative justice attempts to assist people affected by a particular crime to contribute towards making things right.  The proponents of this justice system emphasize on the needs of the aggrieved parties and restoration of the offenders. ...

Quastions Concerning Law

In acknowledgement of the case presented it doubtless that Oklahoma Law court has personal jurisdiction over Magma Verde Corporation. It is indicated that Oklahoma Court has a long-arm stature which empowers it to investigate legal issues. During ...

Rape Crimes in New York City

Introduction Crime rates in New York have dramatically fallen over the past decade, and it attracted attention of the entire world. In New York, they are various crimes that occur almost on daily bases. These crimes include car theft, murder, bank ...

Rape in South Africa

Many countries define rape as forcefully having sexual intercourse with a person. Rapist is the name given to an individual who commits the act. Many people do not report cases of rape, because of the fear of shame. Rape cases are investigated by ...

Relationship of Civilian Review Boards

Introduction With the rise of the concern about the behavior of the law enforcement officers, two issues have emerged which have called for the need of both a vigilant Civilian Review Board and ethical oversight. Banks, (2004) notes that, in this ...

Republic of South Africa

South Africa, also referred to as Republic of South Africa is one of the countries in the African Continent. Located at the southern edge of the continent, the country lies in 29.046 degrees south of equator and 25.063 degrees east of Green ...

Restorative Justice

Miller (2008) defines Restorative Justice as an approach to justice that centers on the repair of the harm revealed or caused by a criminal behavior. The offenders are encouraged to be responsible in repairing the harm they have committed either by ...

Retributivist and Utilitarian Theories

Introduction Retributive justice approach is a logical infliction of sentence warranted on the basis that the particular crime amounts to an inequality in the societal order that needs to be handled through action against the convicted person. ...

Rights of Accused

The Due Process is the officially permitted rule that must respect all the official constitutional rights that one is entitled to; these rights are the right to existence, freedom, possessions or any other basic rights, privileges, or immunities ...

Role of Police in Juvenile Discretion

The local police departments of any community across the United States are under the increasing pressure from the citizens, and even their own internal divisions. The reason for this is to intimidate or discourage the officers from arresting ...

Sentencing

In every society there are those members of the population who deviate from the societal norms. Such members of the society behave in ways that are not acceptable to the society by breaking the laws and rules set to govern the society. Like in every ...

Serial Killers

The first applicable concept on this topic is the role of validity and hazards to soundness of causal deduction of four lessons of validity hazards (Maxfield & Babbie, 2007). This concept is applicable in the sense that its validity helps to ...

Singapore's Correctional System

Singapore's correctional system is entrusted to Singapore Prison Services, which is a state agency that runs 14 drug rehabilitation centers and prisons in Singapore. It falls under the direct management of the Ministry of Home Affairs. The first ...

State and Federal Jurisdiction

State courts are usually recognized by a state while the federal courts have their establishment under the U.S. constitution and purposes to settle on disputes that involve the laws passed by the congress and the constitution. Jurisdictions are the ...

Successful Prosecution of a Case Arson

Arson investigation starts with the fire itself. To create and sustain a fire three factors must be present. The three factors are known as the fire triangle (Peige ed., 1977). The fire triangle consists of oxygen, a fuel source, and heat. In most ...

Supreme Court Decision

There have been several cases by the Supreme Court that dealt with various law and constitutional concepts. As a matter of fact, the Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court Case formed the basis for judicial review in the U.S under the constitution's ...

Supreme Court Decisions

The Fourth Amendment stipulates that people have the right to be protected in their persons, homes, papers, and personal effects against unreasonable searches and seizures (White & James, 2004). The Supreme Court has had a different ...

Supreme Court Justices

Americans have always voiced for their concerns about the selection of their justices; that is, the extent to which the judges reflect - or fails to reflect - the demographic structure of the population. Demographic reflections have influenced the ...

System of Criminal Justice

Toulmin Method can be used in analyzing criminal justice systems, for instance, in the United States of America. The application of Toulmin’s method of analysis to criminal justice system can be explored under the following sub-headings: ...

Take Home

Conflict theory is the struggle for dominance and power among different social groups. From the perspective of a conflict theorist, there is a social dominance of subordinate classes through the authority and oppression of dominant groups.  ...

The 1984 United States Sentencing Commission

Many theorists have continued to question the effectiveness of the 1984Sentencing Reform Act, including myself. Since its inception, no marked change has been obtained in the criminal judicial system other than what has been documented in many cases ...

The Brown v. Board of Education

A case Brown v. Board of Education was the landmark of United States Supreme Court that declared the establishment of separate public schools for white and black students as unconstitutional. The decision made by the court became the first step for ...

The Case of Sullivan

The case of Sullivan is that of a minor who has committed an offence which can be judged before the jury.  The case is heard and heard on an offence of sexual battery by the judge in Florida. He is a young boy who was 13 years old. In such ...

The Cost of Illegal Drug Use

Illegal drug use is a consumption or abuse of drugs without the prescriptions of a certified medical practitioner. Availability of illegal drugs has become an immense problem, mostly with teenagers, when they are at their maturing stages, and the ...

The Courts in South Africa

In 1994, South African first democratic constitution established the Constitutional courts: the Interim constitution of 1993.Currently the court consists of eleven judges eight of whom are men and three women. It is headed by a Chief Justice and ...

The Criminal Justice

Explain what is meant by the term victimization paradox and describe its consequences. Victimization paradox means unwarranted singling out of a person or a group of people for subjection of crime. Many people usually fear to be victimized by ...

The Criminal Justice System

Criminal justice refers to the application of laws relating to criminal behavior. A criminal justice system is a lay down of legal and social institution for implementing the criminal law in conformity with a defined set of procedural rules and ...

The Deterring Crime

The deterrence theory of crime control derives its impetus from the notion that engaging in criminal activities is a personal choice. Studies have linked the rationality of human beings to their propensity to indulge in crime based on the ...

The Downfall

Theodicy, the justification of Divine Justice in permitting evil in this world, is a fundamental issue for believers. People of all lifestyles argue on the possibility that God allows his people to suffer. Other people think that people would not ...

The English Civil Justice System

The main aim of the civil justice process is to provide the means by which civil disputes can be resolved in accordance with the principles of justice and fairness which the process promotes. This includes ensuring that the parties are on equal ...

The Investigative Plan

There are various steps that have to be followed to investigate daytime robbery which has been committed in the town. Record all details of the crime scene. Get statements and try to identify witnesses of the robbery. Acquire detailed description ...

The Jury System

Introduction A Jury is essentially a group of people chosen from the community and tasked with the responsibility of hearing a legal case from where they deliver a verdict accordingly (Greene, & Bornstein, 2002). Juries are normally used in ...

The Main Purpose of Prison Sentence

A sentence marks the “final explicit act of a judge-ruled process” (Murdoch, 2006, p. 34). A sentence defines the necessary course of action that will be taken against an individual who has been found guilty of a crime by a court of ...

The Organized Crime

Omerta is an informal unwritten code of honour. It presupposes silence, allegiance of family members and non cooperation with authorities. Members of organized criminal groups are to settle personal grievances without seeking help from authorities ...

The Probation and Parole

Parole is the earlier release of a convict from jail of the prison where he, or she will be under immense supervision after a small period of the conviction has been served. The practice always assumes that the prisoner will successfully demonstrate ...

The Punishment of Criminals

Liberal perspective on crime resents the punishment of criminals using uncouth means and say criminals should be punished using the right procedures and the government has an obligation to protect the rights of subordinate groups. Liberal view of ...

The Purpose of the Anti-Fraud Service

To ensure that the councils money and services in the housing benefit schemes are safe and secure in ensuring that the goals and objectives of the housing benefits are achieved.  The anti fraud service system ensures that it applies both the ...

The Race and Crime

The court cases critiqued by this paper points to one thing; that the death penalty in the country is “color blind.” The death penalty seems to be the preserve of the blacks, the poor, the uneducated and the mentally-ill. Preferential ...

The Restorative Justice

Legal systems focus on rules and laws and often disregard the reality that crime is essentially about causing harm. Restorative justice, also sometimes called reparative or corrective justice, views crime as an offence against people within ...

The Trial

The trial is the most efficient method of determination of legal disputes particularly where the parties involved cannot settle the disputes by themselves or where less formal methods are not applicable. It ensures that justice is administered ...

Theoretical Criminology

Left realism criminology is the realistic in its entire appraisal to the crime itself and its causes. It is radical since in a crime, it is often viewed as an endemic product. Crime is not considered to be an abnormality product but is considered to ...

Theory of Justice

Introduction Theory of justice is a book that fully describes political philosophy as well as ethics written by John Rawls and published back in 1971. The author strived to address the issue of distributive justice through the use of various ...

Tort Liability

Tort is a civil wrong. It is an accidental or intentional act, which results to loss or injury to another party. The injury is not just limited to the physical aspect, but also to the emotional and reputational point of view (Okrent, 2009). Tort law ...

Trends of the Criminal Justice System

Criminal justice is a system that presupposes, first of all, a social control and prevention of a crime. It also protects those accused of a crime against unfair judgment and abuse of power. There are many organs that study, improve and develop ...

Trial by Peers

Introduction This program is used as an alternative method for the juvenile offenders at their first or second time. The program give privileges to peers to charge, represent and sentence their fellow peers who have been caught by the issue of ...

Types of Evidences

Question 1: Types of EvidencesDirect evidence; is meant to prove a case before the courts without drawing an assertive conclusion. A witness testifies straight before a court. Witness does not directly testify before a court of law.Circumstantial ...

U.S. Marshals

Introduction  This paper seeks to discuss the office of the U.S Marshals. It seeks to discuss all the aspects which are involved in the job description, duties and responsibilities of the U.S Marshals. In essence, this paper will not only shed ...

Understanding Deviance

According to the labelling perspective, deviance is something that lays focus on the tendency of majorities to label minorities negatively. It is not considered as inherent to a particular act. However, deviance is considered as a labelling that is ...

United States v. Bass

Introduction The U.S. Supreme Court overturned a Sixth Circuit opinion continuing a decision of the federal court to grant John Bass's discovery motion in reference to the selective prosecution. Bass the defendant suspected that the government ...

Video Advocacy

Video advocacy has gained popularity as a tool of addressing human rights audiences. In fact, the goal of video advocacy is to supplement other forms of advocacy not to down play them. Essentially, video advocacy facilitates collection and recording ...

War Against Women

Introduction It is a fact that if there is a matter that remains ignored, it is that of war against women. So ignored is the matter that pertinent terms such as Gender justice is totally unfamiliar to many. That war crime against women is a serious ...

War Crime and Alibi

Before a person is admitted into the military, he/she swears to uphold two major things: to protect the American Constitution against foreign or domestic enemies and to obey the orders of the President and the military officer in charge (Powers, ...

Week

According to appellate courts, there are two standards of demonstrating the use of force in rape cases. The first one is latter standard in which there is nothing apart from the physical force applied by the rapist. Concerning former standard, the ...

What is the Criminal Justice

A crime control strategy that doesn't incorporate fundamental, radical changes in the style and objectives of policing, employment policy and programs, economic development strategies and targets, family and educational policy is not an efficient ...

White Collar Crime

White collar crime is a coined word that refers to the type of crime, which public figures in high social positions perpetrate in the course of their duty. It is categorized under criminal law in the United States. There is no commonly agreed ...

Zero Tolerance or Graduated Sanctions

Introduction It is unfortunate that violence in the population youth has significantly grown in the recent past. This increasing trend is not only seen in the regions of the country, but also recorded all a round the world (Edwards, 2008). The ...

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