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The career options available to women of Jane Adam’s social class were very limited and usually started or ended with marriage. The gentlewomen housewife was the popular and easily adopted future for most of the women of Jane’s era, as it provided the security and promised settled life with an almost certain and predictable future.  The choices for women generally were limited because of the inherent dogmatic traditions within the American society which denied women the right to vote or manage property. However, like many women of her stature and social class, were taking up unconventional careers. Some of them became the founding mothers of the feminist movements, such as the American National Suffrage Movement which aimed at achieving equal rights for women. During war times, the chances of employment arose for ordinary women in positions, such as teachers, clerks and nurses. In the absence of men, they even took up the duties as farmers and mechanics. All these were circumstantial employment chances arising out of the repercussions of war, and not because of the position or power that women commanded in the society. Women were still regarded as lower than being capable of taking up professions equivalent to a man’s intellect. Yet, it was these circumstances which gave women like Jane Addams an opportunity to pursue a meaningful and goal oriented life long career. Hence, it is safe to say that career options for women of Jane Adam’s social class were limited to the point of non existence unless they invented one for themselves like Jane did.

Q.3: Why did Jane Addams choose Chicago and Hull House to Establish her Settlement House?

The primary reason for choosing Chicago at her settlement by Jane was because of the socio-economic conditions of the city that best suited her interests and career goals. Since it was a major industrial city with underpaid workers living in substandard human conditions, Chicago represented the extreme state of the labor class. It was ideal for Jane to start from the extreme end of her target class and try to bring improvement. The Haymarket riots had already attracted nation’s attention and highlighted the plight of Chicago’s workers. Inside Chicago, Jane selected Hull house because of its location and living conditions in the surrounding area. Surrounded by factories and tenements, the place was an icon of poverty dwelled by the under dogs of society. Like Chicago as an example of indigent and repressed workers’ city in America, Hull House was the poorest of the poorest localities within the city. Again it suited best for Jane to start her efforts and focus on the most squalid and below average area of the city.

Q1: Individuals like Gifford Pinchot and Theodore Roosevelt did not Need to Work. Discuss the Factors that led to their Choices in Public Service?: People like Gifford Pinchot and Theodore Roosevelt needed no work for the income generation purposes because of their prolific family backgrounds. The wealth they inherited from their families was enough to support any lifestyle of their choice. Therefore, money was not a problem for them to become a factor in the choice of their careers. Their choice of public service careers was driven by the sense of higher purpose and responsibility towards the society and an eagerness to serve in positions of leadership that benefited the whole society. Since both of them had surpassed the needs of food, security, belongingness and self esteem, they had moved on to the positions where one seeks the self-actualization. It was in the quest for this highest level of human needs that both Gifford Pinchot and Theodore Roosevelt found their careers in public service. Men like them derive satisfaction from pursuing careers in fields that help them contribute in unique and exclusive ways to go down as pioneers in the annals of history. Like Gifford Pinchot today is remembered as the man who initiated the American forestry conservation movement. Similarly, Theodore Roosevelt is known as one of the best presidents of his era.

Q2: How did the 1890 US Census Report which Declared that there was no More Frontier, Help Place Gifford Pinchot’s Forestry Ideas into Practice?

 Since the 1890 census proclaimed an end to the frontier, there was no more land available for expansion. This helped end the doctrine of inexhaustibility and led Americans to believe that they have to make do with whatever was left to them. In other words, they needed to focus on conservation to help benefit from the available resources in a meaningful and optimal manner while avoiding extinction of the underlying resources at the same time. The census created ambivalence and anxiety about the America’s hitherto material growth and progress which was largely attributed to the existence of frontier itself. However this had changed now. Conservation therefore seemed not just logical, but also an antidote to the problems and apprehensions caused by the ending of frontier. The census infect provided the needed impetus to the conservation drive and the idea itself became acceptable as the possible alternative to overcome the new challenge of an exhausted frontier. Since Americans were living in ignorant bliss of a never ending frontier until now, the census removed this illusion and forced the discovery of alternatives, conservation being the foremost among them.

Q1: Two Schools of Thought on Achieving Advancement for Black People Dominated the Late-nineteenth and Early-twentieth Century America. Compare and Contrast the Philosophies and Practices of Booket T. Washington and William E.B De Bouis.

Booker T. Washington school of thought preached that Political and Social advancement of black people should be subordinate to economic advancement. The logic behind his conciliatory approach was that since blacks were backward economically, they could not focus on two goals at one time. They should develop themselves economically first to claim a fair share in other aspects of political and social life. His approach was also termed Patient persuasion as he believed in gradualism.  Washington even went to the extent of proposing only vocational training instead of proper education for blacks. His policies by and large were seen by his opponents as a continuation of the slave era or more closely quasi-slavery. Washington’s school of thought believed that peaceful co-existence with whites can be achieved by gradual improvement of black’s economic and social position rather than calling for immediate elevation of black’s status.

William E.B De Bouis school of thought on the other hand demanded equal rights for blacks whether economic, political or social. It decried black exploitation and discrimination and called for an end to prejudice against black people.  It emphasized upon education and vehemently protested Washington’s proposal for vocational training for blacks as a ploy to constantly keep blacks at a repressed level in the society. The De Bouis school of thought did not believe in passivism or conciliatory approach and preferred active work towards attainment of equal rights for black people.

Q2: By the Time of Martin Luther King Jr’s Birth in 1929, Black Culture was Making an Increasing Mark on the National Culture. Identify Factors that Made This so?

Many factors had played their role in helping black culture make a mark on the national culture. Prominent among these were the establishment of NAACP (National Association for the advancement of Colored People), Marcus Garvey’s ‘Back to Africa’ slogan and the Harlem Renaissance. NAACP worked towards the advancement of colored people’s rights and published routine journals to raise awareness about important issues. Macus Garvey ‘Back TO Africa’ slogan had emboldened black’s position and their potential within the society. The crux of the whole episode was that it gave black’s confidence and identity which had been lost. Even though it could not convince them to move back to Africa, the movement did bolster indispensability of black people. Music was yet another contribution which publicized the contributions towards society of which black people were capable. Ragtime, Blues and Jazz were some of the important black music productions. Harlem Renaissance was yet another effort on part of the black intellectuals towards the imparting value towards the American culture. The black artists and writers were able to attract white admirers, which was an achievement in itself for the people who have just been considered as workers and laborers until now.

Q1: As Evidence Suggests in the Martin Luther King Jr’s Chapter, Racism was Widespread and Deep-seated in the South during the 1940’s and 1950’s.What Factors Contributed to Elvis Presley’s Apparent Lack of Bigotry towards African Americans?

Ans:  Elvis Presley had been listening to music on radio since his childhood, including the black music. At that time, black contribution towards American culture was making headways in the form of blues, Jazz etc. This contribution was having far reaching impacts on the black-rich divide in the country besides the music itself. Listening to music like blues inspired white children to condemn racial segregation and be cognizant of the injustices which their ancestors have been guilty of towards the black community. White boys including Presley had started listening to singers in black church services and appreciate it at the same time. Music became a bridge and medium of communication for raising awareness about the unfair treatment and segregation of black people in society. Young whites like Presley became sympathized with the black cause and therefore did not harbor feelings of bigotry towards their fellow countrymen.  For Presley who had been a fan of blues a music invented by blacks, it was natural for feelings of admiration and respect to develop rather than bigotry or repulsiveness.

Q3: What Influences Combined to Create the Elvis Presley Look and General Rebelliousness of the American Youth in the 1950’s?

Elvis Presley primarily was influenced by James Dean’s who looked the same way on screen as he did in private. Though Presley claimed to look like truck drivers, he was influenced by Deen as well. Like other young fans of Deen, Presley too was a great admirer. However, Presley’s look and onstage performance or behavior was influenced by factors that were affecting the youth of his era. This included the literature where writers depicted the adolescent of the youth whose expectations could not come true. Novels such as ‘The catcher in the Rye’ were instrumental in promoting and giving expression to the rebelliousness present in the youth of that time. Another factor was music or the beatniks which have been seen as a symbol of non conformity with the traditions and norms of that day. The beatniks were bohemian people that questioned the established relationship between sexes and began experimenting with other illegal practices such as drugs. They focus more on individual freedom and less on the mores of society. The beatniks were an important factor in explaining the growing rebelliousness in the youth of Presley’s era while he himself attributed his sensual and body movements on stage to music only. 

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