The concept of development refers to lifespan changes that occur in the whole life of an individual, that is, from birth. Therefore, it can be viewed to involve various stages of developmental progress, from the birth of a person till his/her death. To this end, the following are the broad domains, which can be of interest to students studying human development: biological development, cognitive development and psychosocial development (Sigelman & Rider, 2012).
Biological development encompasses the changes and processes that take place in the human body (Sigelman & Rider, 2012). These involve changes in physical characteristics such as height, size and functions of a human being. This process of development begins at the time of fertilization.
Cognitive development includes mental developments and processes, which include, but are not limited to creativity, problem solving, logic, imagination, and reason. The concept encompasses the acknowledgement that the mind as a complex system, because it has different parts, which interact with one another for it to function (Sigelman & Rider, 2012).
Psychosocial development are emotional changes, social interactions and changes in persomality. This kind of mental/emotional development occurs throughtout an invidual’s life. It is evident that psychosocial development takes place among various individuals at different pace, depening on one’s environmental and biological interractions (Sigelman & Rider, 2012).
The concept of age grade can be understood under the context of social organization, which focuses on age attributes and categories/series through which human beings pass in life (Sigelman & Rider, 2012). The concept of age grade is applicable to one’s life as he/she moves to different stages of life as time passes. For example, a student moves to a different class every year, assuming that he/she does not get re-sits in exams. Therefore, a students attains the next/higher grade by studying well to excel in his/her academics. On the other hand, the concept of age norms are social rules that control the behavior of individuals of a particular age (Sigelman & Rider, 2012). The concept of age norms are applicable to an individual, because they direct daily actions, timing and life transition events. In this regard, the concept of age norms can be applied to a student to regulate his/her behavior, especially when relating to peers and other people. This helps in inculcating ethical and good manners that facilitate a student’s moral growth/development in the society. Finally, the concept of a social clock is a definite cultural timetable that controls the occurrence of events (Sigelman & Rider, 2012). For instance, a learning institution has an acceptable timetable that outlines when specific events are supposed to take place. Therefore, the concept of a social clock is applicable to a student since he/she is needed to follow a school timetable. Following this concept, a student has to be on-time with his/her studies, beacuse ‘off-time’ assignments are subjected to late penalties.
Psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive-developmental, and systems theorist would be used to explain Susie’s scary dream problem by performing the following (Sigelman & Rider, 2012). First, the identification involved in ascertaining the problem that Susie faced. Identifying the problem is essential since it lays down the platform in which other processes of problem solving are fixed. Second, the interpretation applied in defining the problem better and assigning it to a category so that its solutions could be suggested. It would involve outlining the possible and potential solutions to the problem. Third, the evaluation of solutions used to make decision that could fix the problem. The objective of this step is to decide on a strategy that will fix the problem. It is common knowledge that scary dreams are experienced, especially during childhood, and since Susie was only four years old, she was likely to re-experience this problem. The fourth step is implementing a suggested solution. Regarding this, Susie’s parents needed to give her assurance, immediately after she woke up from the scary dream. The parents should have assisted Susie to develop a positive mind-set of overcoming the scary dream. In sum, Susie’s parents ought to have treated her scary dream seriously by advising her how they managed to overcome theirs during childhood. This kind of sharing and joy would facilitate overcoming Susie’s fears.