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Scientists carry out research analysis using animals to assist them in the development new medicines and therapies that are meant to curb various diseases that pose danger known to man. Currently ongoing scientific experimentation being done on animals is aimed at look into diseases such as AIDS, heart disease, Cancer, muscular dystrophy, and cystic fibrosis among other. Additionally, experiments on the development of synthetic arteries, understanding the process of ageing and reversing injuries to the spinal-cord injury are all under inquiry using animal models. (Watson, 2009). Animal testing being usefulness calls for new improved ways of carrying out testing in line with animal rights.

History of problem

According to Sherman (2002), elementary researches are made in attempts to comprehend for the sake of comprehending and a result, the aim of elementary animal research is to develop a comprehension of the animal world and may entail the investigations of animal. In spite of the novelty of animal research, many of these the processes fail in addressing the moral arguments that advocates for animal welfare. In return many of people who carry out animal testing ignore that fact that animals suffer just like human do. It is this notion that denies animals their rights to live without pain.

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Man's hope in finding cure to diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, malaria, obesity, epilepsy, infertility, and different forms of birth defects rely entirely on the ongoing animal experiments. The use of animal in research has enhanced the treatment of infections and diseases through improvement on immunization, cancer treatment and management of diseases such as the heart disease, arthritis, brain disorders, and transplantation. In spite of these, many animals have continued to suffer through the use of cruel animal testing techniques (Yarri, 2005).

Despite the existence of proponents fighting against the use of animals in experiments, scientist has continued to use animals in experiments testing throughout the history. The subsequent emergence of companies and firms during the mid to as late as nineteenth century led to the increase of the number of animals being used for test as well and the frequency of test too. During this time, animals were thought as creatures that could not feel pain and thus had no right accorded to them (Lock, Last & Dunea, 2001). This rapid growth in animal testing resulted in the establishment of many organizations that championed the halting of animal testing.

Due to increased public outcry against animal testing, several reforms were made in a number of contrives.in the United States, Laboratory Animal Welfare Act was established in 1966 to regulate acquisition and handling of animals and was later amended to embrace care of animals in institutions of research. As the outcry on abuse of animals during testing and deprivation of their rights become more public during the 1990s, this created anger against the speedy animal testing. As a result a number of countries initiated changes concerning animal testing. For instance in, Betton (2007) confirms that Britain banned animal testing meant for cosmetics within the country in 1998.

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Extent of the problems

As a result of the clamors against animal testing, researcher who conduct animal testing as well as their families have come under threats and have experience arson attacks and violence from animal rights extremists.  In the United States in 2006, a university primate researcher received a number of threats for his research and he halted it after a series of demonstrations. Others received threat that led them to halt their research (Dolan, 2007).

Some of the animals testing techniques are very cruel and inflict a lot of pain to the animals being used in the experiments. Currently, many types of animal testing include areas of drugs manufacture, cosmetic industry, nuclear experiment and research. Many product testing are done on in order to create a safe market, where the products are tested on animals before being used in man. A common test is the Draiz Eye Irritancy, a test that is used on albino rabbits.in this test, solutions directly applied into the eyes of the rabbits resulting in a severe damage, as well as paint to the subject. These tests done of animals further deny the animals rights as they are restricted from associating with one another while being subjected to pain and fear (Hayes, 2008).

Furthermore, a number of animal test have been found to be ineffective. Such tests have being found to be infective or useful, though they are still required by various legislations in the world. This has the implication that humans are likely to be affected through the consumption of drugs based on such tests. For instance, in the U.S between 1976 and 1985 the General Accounting Office reexamined about 198 new drugs and out of all the drugs, 103 were detected to have severe risks that were not foreshadowed through the human and animal. This cast doubt on the foundation and reliability of animal testing and its role in providing clear and accurate information that can help find cure to the many diseases affecting man today (Harrison & Balls, 2006).

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Repercussions of the problem   

While it may appear that, cruel animal testing does not seem to injure the animals subjects involved in the experiments, there is a greater risk that the test poses to the research.  For a research to yield valid results, the scientist must be ready to use good animals that are care for and whose rights are safeguarded. These animals will have a good probability to yield results that can be relied on and thus assist in the development of drugs. Therefore use of animals that unhealthy or stressed, may not be of great help to improvement of society at large.

Man and animals have different physical and physiological make ups and these implies that the experiments may prove unreliable but at the same cause damage to innocent animals. As a result of the existing differences between and the different complex biological systems of animals and man the scientific data coming from experiments can be distorted and untrue. Therefore, use of these data to make drugs or other consumable can prove fatal to the humans. On the hand, death of animals used as subjects has an implication that the number of animals will decrease. This is detrimental especially in the use of primates such as the chimpanzees that are few in numbers and could lead to their extinction (Aguirre, 2002).

Campaigns of animal's rights activist and other legislative battles have come up are on the rise due to dictated discharge of shelter animals to laboratories, testing of product safety, protective cover of research facilities against burglaries and vandalism are consuming a lot of resources as agencies engage research institutions ion legal tussle. A lot of money is also being spent in the improvement of research facilities so as to facilitate the accuracy and reliability of data from animal testing. However, these funds could have been used in developing other alternatives to animals testing; substitutes that will take into account the right of animals-rights.

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Future solutions

Due to the pain and suffering that animals go through, a culture of responsible use and handling of animals need to be developed at all stages of education in order to ensure that that students acquire and develop a first-hand feeling regarding the animal physiology and behavior that will boost and enhance their heightened awareness concerning the attributes and needs of animals. This is because, the fundamental interaction that exist between animals and the environment underscore the grandness research based on animals to the medical arena, environmental science and to the society at large (Hau & Van 2003).

The wellbeing of the animals in scientific centers is of great importance to the success of the research. As a result, those who carry out the research must observe protocols that will ensure that right measures are taken to ensure that animal subjects are free from pain or stress. Scientists engaged in animal testing and related researches should be assisted by the government and community members or groups to reexamine existing research plans and to consider the required scientific and ethical ramifications that are necessary to improve the whole process of research. The review process must led to the development of  proper number of animal subjects required  as well as how to  monitor their progress in the research facilities  progress of the work.

There is need to develop plausible alternatives that will effectively substitute animals where possible and cut down on the numbers of animal subject without having a hostile impact on scientific advancement. Reduction and Refinement can be used remove inhumanity. Mannequin animals can be used to substitute for a conscious living animal and this can be could be done via models. Reduction however serves to cut down the number of animal subjects being used to get information. Refinement entails the lowering of degree of beastly procedures done to animals that must be used. These alternatives will in turn promote more humane treatment of animal subjects done through understanding the animal's right as well as having the need of correct research data in mind of the research scientist (Kistler, 2004).

Animal testing in a very significant practice done by scientist in attempt of developing drugs and other substances that will have no effect upon human consumption. However, the application of cruel animal testing has raised a lot of concern on the rights of animals as these subjects are ill-treated and subject to pain. Nevertheless, intervention measure such as training on animal rights, replacement, reduction and refinement can help reduce the animal sufferings.

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