The use of energy by human beings should not be underestimated. Energy is required for heating, cooling, moving, illuminating, and building purposes. The source of energy was derived from wind, agriculture, and water in the past. Nonetheless, the energy sources used are not only natural ones, but also manmade because of the large consumption of energy nowadays. Oil is one source of energy that is found in specific areas because it is not distributed evenly (Raven, Berg & Hassenzahl, 2010). The United States, for instance, import approximately three quarters of their oil. Even though, oil widely used for drilling process is hazardous because of the pollutant's burning oil releases in the air. On the other hand, solar photovoltaic energy is distributed commonly as it is available due to the sun. It is the best source of energy because it has extremely low levels of environmental impact.
Natural gas is another limited source of energy that is found in a few places. It has a low environmental impact because the fossil fuels can burn clearly. Nonetheless, it has a high influence of climatic changes once it is used. Hydropower is a source of energy that is also found in limited quantity. Even though, it has high disruption during construction, it causes permanent damages to the flow of downstream and upstream ecosystems. Coal is a source of energy that is limited in nature as it is found in a number of places. It has a high environmental impact, especially because it does not burn clearly; as a result, it releases nitrogen, sulphur, and soot into the water and air (Raven, Berg & Hassenzahl, 2010). Nuclear fission depends on the use of uranium that is limited to specific places. Even though, its influence on the environment could be low, reactor failure or even its release could cause long-term contamination. In most cases, there are those energy sources that are available in the most parts of the world. Wind is one of these energy sources that exist in most countries that have the environmental impact because it is natural. Geothermal is another source of energy that exists in most countries. It is one of the best sources of energy because it has a low environmental impact.
In most cases, the use of several energy sources has some economic and ethical impacts. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge that set to explore oil has had both environment and economic conflict. Economically, the exploration would save the U.S. a large portion of energy budget that it spends on the purchase of foreign oil. Even the oil companies seek to benefit more as they try to find cheaper sources of oil. However, this project has ethical impacts because the exploration of the oil poses a threat to the nature that is present in the Alaskan wilderness. Moreover, it will affect the wildlife that is in the Arctic Wildlife Reserve. In addition, The Yucca Mountain indicates the responsibility of the government in handling the wastes from electricity production. However, there has been a lot of economical wastage because the process has not been completed. Furthermore, the opponents view the excess costs associated with the establishment and maintenance plant. The ethical impact of the project concerns the safety measures that have been put in place where there are several adverse exposures. More significantly, the presence of earthquakes could expose risks of water levels rising and radioactive release in the air, which could affect the people living around the area. The project proves to be more beneficial, as it seeks to reduce the flood's levels in the area. Economically, it will enhance productivity of agricultural products (Raven, Berg & Hassenzahl, 2010). In addition, it will harbor a suitable site for commercial fishing and recreation. The dam will also displace people living in the area and threaten endangered animal species. However, the sufferings of the displaced persons because of corruption invoke moral issues.
In most cases, the stakeholders have their own interests depending on how they benefit from the energy source. More than that, the stakeholders expect to get cheaper and user-friendly sources of energy. Solar energy is considered cheap and readily available in almost all parts of the world. Biomass fuel remains as the main source of energy to most households and is less hazardous as compared to the use of fossil combustion. Nonetheless, the use of biomass from plants poses environmental problems such as deforestation, air pollution, soil erosion, and desertification. Wind energy is a source used to harness electricity. It is a potent source of energy because it does not produce waste or emissions, but it has a high cost. Hydropower is one of the common sources of energy used today (Raven, Berg & Hassenzahl, 2010). The disadvantages of this source of energy include changes of the flow of the river and endangering of the natural species that live in water. In addition, it exposes individuals to water borne risks. Geothermal energy is more beneficial as compared to fossil because it emits a small fraction of air pollutants. Nevertheless, the use of geothermal energy can degrade the environment.
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge plant seems to have limited deposits of oil that offer a short-term fix to the oil problem in the U.S. As a result, the conservative strategy is aimed at investing in renewable sources of energy and energy conservation measures set to reduce the permanent threats of extracting the oil. The Yucca Mountain project is dealing with a limited resource concerning the particular site of plant location. As a result, the U.S. government should consult with the people of Nevada State on ways of compensating them for constructing the site in the Yucca Mountain (Raven, Berg & Hassenzahl, 2010). The strategy will allow for more consultations and survey studies to be carried on the potential effects of constructing the dumping site within that locality. The Three Gorges Dam is set to face problems based on the rate of sedimentation. It is therefore significant to carry out essential feasibility studies before the initialization of the project. This will allow the selection of a suitable site to set up the dam.