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Introduction

Today the world is faced with a major problem of dealing with gas emissions from various industries. These emissions have resulted into environmental pollution and the world inhabitants are at risk of facing many calamities associated with environment change. Those who are at risk of been adversely affected by this problem is the less developed countries. It is very painful to see that these countries will suffer due to a problem which they are not major source of the problem. The main sources of gas emission are the industrialized countries.

The time to effectively take our time and repair the environment is running out very quickly. The Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation has recently warned people on the issue. If we go by the current changing rate, that the global world is addressing the matters related to climate, the emissions from the green house could rise up to 50%. There is much of daunting figures and numbers that all imply if those responsible are not willing to take appropriate actions. It will therefore be nearly impossible to effectively combat the threat.

Due to the dependence on fossil fuels in the contemporary world, carbon dioxide gas emissions are projected to rise by 70% and will lead to raising the average temperature of the whole world. This will result to high demand for water up to 55% increase. There is also expected premature there is also expected premature deaths that will be caused by exposure to this pollution may double up to three and a half million a year. The number of animals and plants species will as well decline by 10%.

This matter has also been addressed in relation to global carbon price. Through price setting, the mechanisms that are based on emissions trading or carbon taxes programs will encourage investment in technologies of low-carbon.

Introducing this type of taxes and programs may take a couple of decades to move swiftly on a global level; therefore to pursue these initiatives internationally may be one of the most successful approaches. The atmospheric concentrations of this greenhouse gases are established by the balance that exists between sources. That is, the emissions of the gas that is found in natural systems as well as the human activities and sinks.

Greenhouse emission is the process when certain gases trap heat in the planet’s atmosphere. Some greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, form naturally and are emitted into the atmosphere through natural processes and human activities. Other examples of greenhouse gases include fluorinate gases that enter the atmosphere because of human activities. Launder (2008) states that carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere as a result of combustion from fossils (coal, natural gas, and oil), trees, solid waste, wood products, and products of other chemical reactions such as cement manufacturing. Methane is emitted during production and transportation of natural gas, oil and coal. Similar emissions also result from herding livestock and other agricultural practices and through the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills(Launder,2008).

This effect has lead to absorption and emission of radiation within the infrared range of thermal. This process is the primary leading to the greenhouse effect. The fundamental greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, ozone and nitrous oxide. Without them the green house effect on the Earth's surface would range between  33 to 34 °C.

Although the climate changes itself without much external influence, human beings are responsible for most of the environmental pollution experienced. Researchers are looking for ways to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, this change cannot be experienced overnight. In the present world, many people are concerned with the rate of change in climatic conditions. There are no limits for the amount of sources available for greenhouse gas emissions. states that these gases were present in the atmosphere even before humans started recording data. Looking at the current trends in several greenhouse gas emissions, there is yet no universal way to completely alter the production process but the rate of emission.

 In order to address the issue of gas emission ESEM has laid down principles that can be applied in reducing the amount of gas emission to the atmosphere. This paper will investigate how these principles can be technologically applied to handle the issue of gas emission in various industries around the glob ’ production can still be restricted(Diesendof, 2007).

Discussion

 Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth. Without them the Earth’s surface would be on average about 33 degrees colder than it is now. Since the times of the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has led to increase in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 390 ppm, despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions through various natural sinks involved in the carbon cycle. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions (emissions, produced by human activities) come from combustion of carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, wood, oil, and natural gas (Masters, 2005).

Deforestation and burning of fossil fuels result in higher carbon dioxide concentrations in the air. Land use changes, mainly deforestation, in the tropics account for up to one third of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions  (Jowit , 2008).Manure management, livestock enteric fermentation, wetland changes, paddy rice farming, land use, pipeline losses, and cover vented landfill emissions all contribute to higher methane atmospheric concentrations.

Another source of greenhouse gases is the use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration systems, and the use of CFCs and other halons in the fire suppression systems and manufacturing processes.These gases have forced the Earth’s climate to change tremendously. Over the centuries, the concentration of CO2 has been steadily increasing. In the year 2009, the United States government began addressing the challenges arising from greenhouse gas emissions.

The main cause of the greenhouse gas accumulation is the general population’s lack of knowledge concerning understanding the catastrophic effects of this phenomenon.The rate of emissions can be lowered with the combined efforts of the developed and developing countries. However, this may be a complicated task to achieve because coordinating these countries might be difficult. What is practical and affordable in the developed countries might not be widely practiced in the developing ones.

The rate of emissions can also be kept in check by planting more trees, which reduces the atmosphere’s temperature. This task might prove difficult to perform because most countries in the world right now are in a deforestation crisis.

The environmental Scanning Electron Microscope ( ESEM) can be said to be one of transformational innovation  in the area of electronic microscopy. It allows for practical analysis of specimens which are under gaseous condition.In order to solve this crux one must discuss and understand this topic well. The concept is illustrated through the use of Earth Systems Engineering and Management (ESEM) principles. These principles have certain merits and are applied in many disciplines and domains of discourse. But they are sometimes awkward to use due to the quantity of words required to accurately express their meaning. Examples of these ESEM principles include: targeted intervention, evaluation of the technological fix, real world boundaries, multidimensional dialogue, techno social differentiation, transparent governance, multicultural dialogue, part of the system, systems and artifacts, continuous learning, long term investment, quantitative metrics, no explicit control, expect of emergence, incremental and reversible, and resilient not redundant.

Targeted Intervention is when implementing various technological interventions that are meant to help reduce emission of gases to the atmosphere it is very important to ensure that the technology being implemented addresses the problem at hand. For example when a decision is made to use solar energy technology to reduce the gas emission produced from other sources of energy it is important to ensure that the principle of targeted intervention is well used. This call for implementation of the technology where it’s necessary to avoid failures of achieve the expected goals. Many measures have failed due to lack of a well planned intervention program. In our case the solar energy technology should only be implemented in areas that are capable to handle the technology. If for example, you use this measure in an area where the climate is not favorable for the usage of solar energy technology in power generation, then the measure will just be a failure. It is up to the engineering designer of the solar energy technology to design a tool that is appropriate to a situation that a given country is faced with rather than develop the technology of free gas emission energy just for the sake of developing.

This means that one should intervene only when necessary, and only to the extent required. An intervention is required in order to curb the greenhouse gas emissions. In this case, change is necessary so as to divert from the normal human routines that contribute to the numerous amounts of emissions that are released into the atmosphere daily. However, this type of intervention should be conducted only to a certain extent and periodically because radical changes may not always give the best results.

Real world boundaries it is critical to be aware of the particular boundaries within which one is working, and to be alert of the possibility of logical failure when one’s analysis goes beyond the boundaries. It is important for an engineer to know the boundaries of developing certain technology that is meant to reduce gas emission. He/she should understand his/her role and the role of other parties in the implementation process.

For example, a company may decide to implement gaseous detection devices in its production plants, it is important for the parties involved in the process to know their boundaries. This will help avoid conflicts between the parties thus delaying or making it impossible to implement the gaseous detection devices in the production plant.  It is also important for engineers to know that there some technologies that are best to implement in urban areas and others in rural areas. For example wind power generation plants are better located in rural areas rather than in urban areas.

When implementing a policy, the policy makers should have a target group that they use to implement the course. This is because what might be effective in a certain group of people or country might not be effective in other groups or countries. For example, people with lower incomes might be more reluctant to favor all policies. Therefore, people who spend more money on gasoline and electricity would be more loath to accept all changes. People, who believed that the Earth’s temperature has been increasing, would be more likely to favor such new laws. This is more likely to happen with people who label themselves as environmentalists. Demographics review is also important when curbing greenhouse emissions, assessing whether younger adults, who might be more directly impacted by climate change in the distant future, and parents of young children, whose children might be more directly impacted by climate change than they themselves, would be more positive towards these policies.

 Launder, (2008) states that most policy makers require companies to change the way they produce fuel for automobiles and trucks. This will reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by vehicles. This will also result in an increase of the fuel’s price, thus causing people to use it less (Launder, 2008).

Evaluation of technological fix major shifts in technological systems should be evaluated before, rather than after, the implementation of policies and initiatives designed to encourage them. Every policy or technology, that is set to curb the greenhouse gases emissions, should be tested first and the results evaluated before it is implemented. There should be pilot programs or roll-outs that are tested or experimented before implementing the whole idea. For example, when implementing gaseous detection devices technology it is important to test the impact of the devices on the production plant. Failure to test the devices before they are implemented may prove to be costly if they fail to achieve the expected goal. The designers of the gaseous detection devices should thereby develop some trial devices. They can use them to assess the effectiveness of the devices that are still under process of being develop will function and the possible weaknesses.

This reduces the chances of any failures once a technology or a policy has been implemented because any loopholes or failures will be realized and corrected beforehand. In the case of the greenhouse gases emissions, if a technology is implemented and fails, it ,may be a great loss to both the environment and the companies that were involved in the investment and implementation. Therefore, it is advisable to pilot the projects before putting them to practice. This may take a lot of time but it will prevent huge losses or damages that may result from dangerous consequences of the chosen technology.

Multi-dimensional dialogue ESEM projects and programs are highly scientific and technical in nature, but they also have powerful economic, political, cultural, ethical, and religious dimensions as well. All of these facets should be explicitly integrated into ESEM approaches. This ensures that all the important factors are in agreement with the measures that are applied to curb greenhouse gases emissions. Most of the measures utilized are considerably expensive and might require numerous amounts of investments. Some developing countries might not afford the initial investment that is required to implement the policies and methods suggested. Therefore, they might require aid from organizations like UNO or developed countries that are able to invest in such projects. The countries must also be politically stable and the political parties should be in agreement with the policies adopted for such projects. Otherwise, if the political parties are not in general consent, this might cause problems among various political leaders in a country.

 In some cases, the policies suggested tend to favor certain people or companies more than others. This might arouse political instability in a country. Some cultures might be reluctant to practice various methods that are meant to reduce emissions into the atmosphere. This is due to the fact that particular measures might go against their culture and beliefs. Other countries or peculiar people may not be willing to adopt the policies because they might go against their religious beliefs. Therefore, it is important that all of these factors are considered before implementing any policies.

 Multicultural dialog if any ESEM project is to achieve public acceptance and social legitimacy, it must be characterized by an inclusive dialog among all stakeholders at all stages. Everyone that will take part in the implementation and financing of the project must approve the project.

 Long-term Investment ensures that adequate resources are available for support of both the project and the associated science and technology research and development. Investing in means and measures that are meant to reduce greenhouse gas emissions might prove rather expensive and demanding. This may take time and a lot of resources to achieve because most of the investments made are long-term and might take a long time to implement. Most of the effects of such investments may not be felt immediately because it may take time for the policies to be effective until one begins to notice actual change. This is mostly the case in curbing greenhouse gas emissions, the investment is considerably high and it might take a long time for the impact to be felt. After industries implement the policies that are meant to reduce the emissions, it might take years before the climate changes for better after the damage that has been caused in the previous years.

 Part of the system the actors and designers are also part of the system. They are purporting to design, creating a reflexivity that makes the system highly unpredictable and, to some extent, perhaps more unstable as well. The policies and technologies that should be used to curb greenhouse gas emissions should be undertaken by people who have been affected directly by this phenomenon. These include people in big cities and developing countries who have felt the effect of pollution and global warming that are as a result of bad planning. Oil and motor companies should be on the forefront to invest in technology and implementing policies that try to reduce the emissions. This is because these industries are responsible for the highest amounts of emissions which cause global warming (Diesendorf, 2007).

Most CO2 emissions into the atmosphere come from motor vehicles that consume petroleum products. Therefore, the companies responsible for this should be on the front row when coming up with policy recommendations and implementing them. World Bank, (2010) states that the United Nations has launched various projects that will enable developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 19 February 2010 World Bank (2010) stated that ‘Developing countries with energy intensive industries benefited from a United Nations-backed project that was launched to draw up a technological blueprint for capturing and storing global warming gas emissions, a crucial step in averting dangerous climate change’.

This project was meant to help address these obstacles by developing a technology roadmap for CCS across different industry sectors, and assist developing countries in their transition to a low-carbon economy. World Bank (2010) states that the recent studies suggest that CCS could contribute about 20% of the global mitigation needed for halving global greenhouse gases emission by 2050, a reduction that scientists believe is necessary to prevent dangerous climate changes. While there has been significant effort in assessing such technology in the context of power generation, considerably less attention has been paid to industrial applications despite the significant potential for emission reductions.

Continuous learning the system or the policies should ensure room for more learning and modification. This is because the world keeps changing and so do the climate and other factors that affect the climate. The plans and policies that are laid down and implemented on curbing greenhouse emissions should have a plan that will ensure continuous learning in future. This is done mainly to ensure that the system can be revised. The technology, which is implemented to reduce gas emissions into the atmosphere, should be thoroughly investigated. A technology that is utilized now may not be effective in 20 years. That is because there may be more emissions in future calling for a better technology to be applied. Therefore, it is, vital that any policies adopted have more room for further reviewing and revision. Scientists should continue testing and improving the present technologies used to curb emissions to ensure that they can be modified.

 World bank gives an example of technology used to reduce CO2 emissions. Diesel-electric and gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles, that combine either a diesel or gasoline engine with elements of an electric-drive power train, offer a range of CO2 emission reduction possibilities. Advanced emission controls allow these power trains to meet even the toughest criteria emission regulations. Emission controls for gasoline and diesel engines are also generally compatible with low carbon, alternative fuels (e.g., gasoline blends with renewable ethanol or biodiesel blends) that can provide additional reductions in greenhouse gas emissions caused by vehicles. However, this should be subject to further evaluation and research because it might not be long-term or might not eliminate the whole problem (World bank, 2010).

Conclusion

The problem of gas emission is an international problem and requires the input of each and every one in order to come up with lasting solutions. Scholars, international bodies, governments as well as individuals have a crucial role to play in solving this problem that faces the world. It is up to the scientist to come up with scientific measures aimed at reducing gas emission. Efforts aimed at coming up with technologies aimed at reducing the level of gas emission should be supported through funding. The biggest weapon that the world has that can help to curb gas emission is science through research. Therefore it is very crucial to fund various technological as well as other scientific researches aimed at curbing industrial gas emission.

An engineer who is developing a certain technology aimed at reducing the impact of gas emission should follow the principles of ESEM in order to avoid some problems that may arise during the implementation process thus hindering his efforts. An intervention is required in order to curb the greenhouse gas emissions. In this case, change is necessary so as to divert from the normal human routines that contribute to the numerous amounts of emissions that are released into the atmosphere daily. This calls for the engineer to ensure that the intervention is targeted to required area to avoid problems.

According to ESEM projects and programs are highly scientific and technical in nature, but they also have powerful economic, political, cultural, ethical, and religious dimensions as well. This principle is very crucial to the engineer who is developing the technology such as solar energy technology to ensure that all these dimensions are taken into consideration. Failure to incorporate these dimensions may lead to failure of the technology due to lack of support that is very crucial to the success of the technology being developed.

Major shifts in technological systems should be evaluated before, rather than after, the implementation of policies and initiatives designed to encourage them. This means that engineer should evaluate any technological devices aimed at reducing gas emission before implementing them. This can be done through trial tests. This principle is used to avoid problems that arise from devices that are developed. It is critical to be aware of the particular boundaries within which one is working, and to be alert of the possibility of logical failure when one’s analysis goes beyond the boundaries. It is important for an engineer to know the boundaries of developing certain technology that is meant to reduce gas emission.

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