But also it is not enough of it. The main thing in this work - presence of creative activity of the pupil, desire to prove in own non-standard and original projects. This work gives new knowledge in a close connection with a real vital situation, allows through ordering and the analysis of available knowledge to come to new images of economic objects, forms ability to prove own opinion, experience of independent informative, executive, creative and communicative activity is got. But how to perform such uneasy work within a year and to acquire the right to pass examination in the form of the essay?
In 2004-2005 educational year in one of strong classes I have made experiment on preparation for the examination essay and passings an examination on geography in the form of the examination essay.
Already on 4th of September pupils receive (a lottery method, the economic region to which the essay and the plan of work on the essay will be devoted is possible and the realised choice). At reception of a theme of one-two lesson there is a detailed explanation of the plan and stages of delivery of ready sections. The first half of the year the pupil studies to write the essay, receives experience of a writing of the essay. A theme of the skilled essay “the Nature and the population …. Economic region”. All necessary material by the nature of Russia is received in 8th class, ability of the pupil to systematise available data here is to the full shown, ability to present them in a tabular, graphic kind, etc. is simultaneously welcomed presence of drawings, photos and new data. All demographic problems are studied in the first half-year and fixed at once in the essay with reference to concrete territory (if other textbooks in which this section is studied in 8th class it simplifies a situation are used). At this time work on the essay goes in parallel studying of a material of 9th class. From the pupil at this stage high organisation is required. I had been offered a variant of delivery of a ready material under the schedule since unfortunately, only a small amount of young men can plan working hours. The material of the first part of the textbook of 9th class of A.I.Alekseeva and V.V. Nikolinoj is crossed with earlier studied and it allows to be put actively at once into operation. After occurrence of the first executed works, pupils with the best results at the first stage of work address to a class. Thus also it is convenient to note the most successful moments in a statement of a material or on the contrary to specify in errors in registration or a statement. For example, have passed a theme “Settling of the earths Russian Federations”, it is offered to write down the given section of the essay, to prepare a card "Settling" for the chosen economic region, becoming frequent a class has given the information on this theme for the Central area. I note importance of the historical moment for modern development of territory. Some themes, for example "Minerals" are given by me in the form of lecture for all economic region and as a homework it is recommended to write down this section at once. Naturally, value of this section for different regions of the country variously, accordingly and volume of a material at everyone the. In the second half-year two lessons have been devoted industry and agriculture (lecture) environmental problems and should be without fail used in the essay in the necessary sections.
Separate parts of the essay prepared at a lesson so for example, the whole lesson has been devoted a writing of own resume necessary for search and employment. Lines about own merits, skills and abilities and the desirable salary have caused brisk discussion among pupils.
First two months of work have shown, that is far not all have realised, as the essay is written and what pressure is demanded by such work. The records which have been handed over on check, are often made not under the plan, or a lot of superfluous, or it is obviously not enough material. At last performance of planimetric cards on each section that is extremely undesirable is often postponed. After all graphic display of geographical data, it both storing, and the material analysis. Once again I will note, certainly, in this work the big rate becomes on consciousness, organisation of pupils, after all practically at studying of the population and an economy of all country, material fastening follows the account of a concrete definition for certain territories.
On hands the plan of work on the essay, broken into two parts, the first half of the year - reception of experience of a writing of the essay has been given out everyone; the second half of the year - work on the examination essay.
Thus the ample opportunities for realisation of tasks in view were offered each pupil, any not ordinary decision, any, at times the fantastic project was welcomed. After all in the given work as the most valuable search of the optimum decision of economic, social and other problems is.
The plan of work on the essay (first half of the year)
1. A table of contents.
2. Introduction (to explain a theme choice, the importance and an urgency of development of this area.)
3. The basic part:
· area Structure - the scheme, a card.
· Economic-geographical position (after studying of all material), the second half of the year!
The first half of the year.
· the Environment and economic region resources.
Fiziko-geographical position territories (card).
Structure of earth crust within this area.
Minerals of area (card).
Relief territories (card).
Climatic conditions (card).
Water conditions and area resources (the characteristic of the largest waterways).
Area Soils, their characteristic (drawing - a soil cut).
Natural zones within territory (plants and animals) - a card, drawings.
· the Direct and mediated influence of an environment on the person (drawings, a card Nazarevsky).
· History of development of territory and formation of an economic complex (historical stages).
· Number and placing of the population within area (diagramme).
· Population shifts - a card.
· the Demographic situation.
· the Labour market (own resume).
· Cities and rural settlements of area.
To Give the characteristic to the largest cities (2-3).
The Project () developments of the Russian village.
History, great people, development prospects.
Cards, schemes, drawings.
· National and religious structure of the population of area.
· Research section.
Creation in territory of area of reserve, national park, ????????? etc. (choice) In the project of an explanation of placing, the purpose of its creation, the main tasks and primary activity, work forms, financing questions (primitively).
The pupil receives accurate representation how the essay is written, it consists of what sections, receives practical guidance as the bibliography, for example, is made, material selection, its processing is conducted. Very much an important point is explanation of research essence of this work. The pupil starts to own working methods which it will use for research works and in other subjects.
Thus, to a winter vacation passes preparation and training protection of the first essay by the nature and the population (simultaneously it and psychological training necessary for examination), and during a winter vacation goes gathering of a material for examination work. Thus the work volume is that, that he demands the big pressure of forces and time, how many the competent organisation of work not so much. At least, two times a week (when there are geography lessons) it is necessary to work over the essay. This work does not mean census of the information from books and (or) the Internet and other sources, here there is an analysis of already available knowledge, their synthesis, creative use in own projects, a substantiation of the original decision.
In the second half of the year there is a work on the examination essay, which main theme the economy characteristic “N area” the Russian Federation is. Themes can slightly differ, for example “the Characteristic of an ec onomy of the Central area”, “the Main branches of specialisation of the European North”, “Prospects of economic development of the North Caucasus”. I consider, convenient such tandem: the area nature - an area economy. But a theme and the first trial essay and the second examination, the teacher thinks over according to the situation and possibilities of the pupils.
The plan of work on the examination essay (second half of the year)
4. An economic complex of area:
· thermal power station (a branch share in an economy of the Russian Federation the territorial organisation, structure, the characteristic of deposits of combustible minerals) - a card, schemes.
· Electric power industry (a branch share in an economy of the Russian Federation the territorial organisation, structure, the characteristic of prevailing types of power stations) - a card, drawings.
· Color and ferrous metallurgy (a branch share in an economy of the Russian Federation, the territorial organisation, structure, the characteristic of deposits of black and colour ores) - a card, drawings.
· Mechanical engineering (a branch share in an economy of the Russian Federation, the territorial organisation, structure, disproportions and ways of their smoothing) - a card, drawings.
· the Chemical industry (raw materials, placing factors, environmental problems) - a card, fig.
· the Wood complex (the wood characteristic, environmental problems) - a card, drawings
· agrarian and industrial complex (a branch share in an economy of the Russian Federation, the territorial organisation, structure, the characteristic of the main vegetative cultures, animal industries kinds) - cards, drawings.
· Food and light industry (placing major factors, the main centres, prospects)
· the Transport complex (kinds, features, drawing of ways) - a card, the scheme
· Non-productive sphere.
Own project of family business.
5. The basic problems of area and development prospect. Area "mission", its mission.
6. Research section (the theme makes a reservation with the teacher) - trade, service, tourism, forecasts, prospects of development free economic zones.
7. The conclusion (in what the work, what complexities consisted, that was pleasant).
8. The bibliography (First name, middle initial, last name the author, an edition place, year of the edition)
The planned schedule at the rate of economic geography demands insignificant correction so all practical works of this course are connected with work on the essay. It is possible to include if necessary in the plan examinations if there are doubts in mastering of a current material. Though in the second half of the year on each branch, on each complex in the essay by pupils are given as the introduction of data for all country, and only then there is a characteristic of this branch in territory of the given area. In each area different branches of an economy, accordingly are developed and the greatest work is connected with most perspective of them.
In the second half-year pupils fix skills of independent work. The teacher plays a role of the adviser, the assistant, but not the compiler of knowledge.
It is necessary to note importance of final research section of the examination essay, it should be the most modern material, here the basic reception is work with periodicals. It is welcomed here and Internet use. The modern material of regional studies is most actual, it is preferable to those who writes the essay on the economic region. Various themes have been offered.
Themes for a research part of the examination essay on economic geography of Russia.
1. Participation of the Central economic region in foreign economic relations of Russia.
2. Participation.................... Economic region in economic relations with member countries CIS.
3. Trading and financial activity of the largest cities..................... Economic region.
4. Trade and economic relations.................... Economic region with other regions of Russia.
5. The basic directions and consequences of interaction of the person and an environment surrounding it (on examples of development of an economy of the area).
6. Prospects of development of an economy on the basis of prirodno-resource potential....... Economic region.
7. The basic directions and problems a resource of a saving up policy of the Russian state at the present stage.
8. A place and a transport role in system of interbranch productive and economic communications.
9. The characteristic of historically developed specialisation of agricultural areas of Russia (it is possible on the basis of the area).
10. Prospects of development of a farm in Russia.
11, the Analysis of a modern condition of sphere of service of the area. Structure of paid services to the population.
12. A recreation as a kind of economic activities and services to the population.
13. The organisation of tourism and excursion service of the population........ Economic region.
14. The characteristic and prospects of development sea and (or) river port.
15. Leading trading partners of Russia.
16. Working out and a substantiation of the original scheme of economic division into districts of the country.
17. The characteristic of diverse economic functions and a problem of development of Moscow and the Moscow city agglomeration.
18. The characteristic of the productive and economic communications which have historically developed between areas of the Central Russia.
19. The characteristic of the largest industrial knot.................... Economic region; structure, specialisation, productive and economic communications with the next territories.
20. A free economic zone in............... Economic region.
21. Own theme (it is necessary to receive the permission to its working out).
Within a year pupils have an opportunity to use separate sections of the essay for performances at scientifically - practical conferences not only school, but also regional level. They also receive experience of public statements. There is also an elimination incapable of creative scientific works. Probably, even, most likely, only a small amount of pupils will become interested in such research work, will feel taste of independent creative activity. Work on the examination essay is the first research activity, allowing to feel itself as really knowing and creative person, to feel value of the knowledge. After all the receptions used in this work, are suitable for any subject.
This examination form allows to consider all many-sided nature of the person of the pupil, and this form is necessary for keeping in the conditions of occurrence of the standardised system of an estimation of knowledge.