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The purpose and problems of term paper

Term paper allows to judge that, how much the student has acquired a theoretical course and what its possibilities of application of the received knowledge for their generalisation on the selected theme.

Value of term paper consists that in the course of its performance the student not only fixes, but also deepens the received theoretical knowledge. Term paper is the important part of independent work of students. Experience and the knowledge received by students at this grade level, can be in many respects used for preparation of research paper.

To term paper as to the first independent research, following demands are made:

• term paper should be written at high enough theoretical level with attraction legislative, standard, etc. documents on the selected theme;

• work should be written independently;

• work should be written accurate and competent language and is correctly issued, i.e. should have the title page, a table of contents, numbering of pages, fields for remarks of the head, and in the end of work - the list of the used literature.

Preparation of term paper includes following stages: 

1. A theme choice; 

2. Selection and initial acquaintance with the literature for the selected theme;

3. Drawing up of a preliminary variant of the plan;

4. Studying of the selected references;

5. Drawing up of a definitive variant of the plan;

6. Gathering and processing of the fact sheet on the basis of the statistical information, publications in the special literature, and also their ordering and generalisation;

7. A writing of the text of term paper;

8. Protection of term paper.

2. A choice of a theme of term paper

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The success in a writing of term paper is predetermined by a correct choice of a theme. 

The subjects of term papers are made and affirms chair. The option of any offered theme is given to students. In coordination with the head and managing chair the student can select the theme which is not entering into the list recommended by chair for term paper, and also to change its name a little.

At a theme choice it is necessary to consider the scientific and practical interest caused by work of the student in scientific student's mugs, reading of the special literature, experience of last work, reports on seminar employment, term papers in adjacent subjects. The theme of term paper can co-ordinate in the long term with working out of questions in research paper. In this case the student puts before itself aim to deepen received before knowledge so that, comprehensively having studied a problem to perform research paper on a theme close to its interests.

The student can choose such theme which is a little studied by it in the course of the previous study. However the choice of a theme of term paper should be proved. At a theme choice it is necessary to have rough idea about essence of this or that problem, to know, what questions should be mastered in work. With that end in view the student should familiarise with the selected theme under references.

The chair confirms subjects of term papers, appoints the head of work and defines terms of its performance and protection.

3. Selection and familiarity with the literature on the selected theme

To select the literature for term paper follows at once after a theme choice. To do it it is necessary independently. It is necessary for student to show the ability to use catalogues and bibliographic directories. It is not necessary to forget thus and plans of seminar employment in which the basic literature on corresponding sections of a course is specified. 

Selecting the literature in library, it is recommended to address to the librarian. Working with the in detail-thematic catalogue, it is necessary to see not only the sections strictly coinciding with a theme of term paper, but also the themes close to the selected. Thus it is necessary to select the literature shining both a theoretical side of the problem, and operating practice.

Independent work at selection of the literature does not exclude, and on the contrary, assumes regular consultations of the head.

The list of the picked up literature should be necessarily co-ordinated with it. At the head of work it is necessary to consult also about what newest changes and additions are necessary for considering at study of the picked up literature. In process of acquaintance with sources they join in the list of the used literature. 

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Familiarity with the selected literature is necessary for finding out, how much the maintenance of this or that book or journal article corresponds to the selected theme. Besides, without such acquaintance it is impossible to receive full representation about a circle of the questions covered by a theme, and to make an initial variant of the plan of term paper.

4. Drawing up of the initial plan

On the basis of familiarity with the literature the initial variant of the plan of term paper should be thought carefully over. Usually term paper consists of the introduction, two-four paragraphs and the conclusion. 

At scheduling, first of all, it is necessary to define an approximate circle of questions which will be considered in separate paragraphs, and the sequence of questions which in them will be stated is defined. These questions are not specified basically (the "official" plan. They are intended for the so-called worker (more detailed, “internal use”) the plan on which term paper is written.

Any theme can be opened differently. But the plan of term paper reflects its basic directions. The work plan should reflect the basic idea of work, open its maintenance and character. In it it is necessary to allocate most theme pressing questions.

The student co-ordinates the made plan with the head of term paper.

5. Studying of the selected literature

After the working plan co-ordinated with the head is made, it is necessary to start detailed studying of the selected literature. Thus, as a rule, essays are made. Character of the last is defined by possibility and the form of use of a studied material in the future work. It can be extracts (citation) or a summary of thoughts, the facts or the characteristic of the read material in the form of a detailed plan of those places of work which can be demanded at a text writing. In all cases it is necessary to write down the name of a source, publishing house and page, records whence are borrowed. 

Ordering of received data on the basic sections of work provided in the plan has great value. Having read and having summarised this or that source, it is necessary to think over a question on, where (proceeding from the plan of term paper) data can be used. Similar ordering allows on the basis of the practical analysis of the selected material more deeply and comprehensively to take up the basic questions of a theme.

At literature studying it is recommended to observe certain sequence. To begin follows from studying of legislative materials, textbooks and manuals. Then it is possible to pass to monographies. To finish it is necessary journal articles and instructive materials. Such sequence in studying of references allows to accumulate and deepen gradually knowledge, to go from simple to difficult, from the general to the particular. Careful studying of the literature should be finished before there is begun selection of a practical material.

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6. Drawing up of a definitive variant of the plan

After the literature collected on a theme is carefully studied and systematised, some changes of an initial variant of the plan of work are possible. 

Changes in the plan can be connected with some updating of the direction of work of which necessity the author is convinced after detailed acquaintance with a studied problem, or with that circumstance, that on some question, allocated in independent section, there was no sufficient material, and on another, on the contrary, there are fresh, giving theoretical and practical interest data.

In a case if after acquaintance with references the new variant of the plan is made, last also should be co-ordinated with the head of term paper. The definitive variant of the plan of term paper should be added by the schedule of its writing.

7. A writing of term paper

Term paper is written on the basis of studying of legislative, standard, statistical and other materials, and also carefully worked references. 

Characterising the maintenance of separate sections of work, it is necessary to note the following.

In introduction on three-four pages value of the selected theme reveals. Here it is necessary to formulate problems which are put before itself by the student at a work writing.

The first paragraph, as a rule, has theoretical character. 

In the subsequent paragraphs the actual material is analyzed.

For increase of level of validity and presentation the work maintenance should be illustrated by tables, schemes, digital examples, calculations, etc.

If the illustrative material is taken out in the appendix it is necessary to give references to it in the numbered kind. All sections of term paper should be connected among themselves, therefore it is necessary to pay attention to logic transitions from one paragraph to another.

In the conclusion it is necessary to draw the general conclusions and short to state offers by results of theme studying.

In the end of work the list of the used literature is resulted.

The work volume should make approximately 25-30 pages of the typewritten text, 35-40 pages - hand-written.

8. Registration of term paper (CAN DIFFER Depending on YOUR HIGH SCHOOL And the SUBJECT!!!)

The material in work is recommended to have in the following sequence: 

1. The title page;

2. The plan-table of contents;

3. A text statement of term paper (under paragraphs);

4. The literature list;

5. The practical material used in work (in the form of the appendix if it is not given on a statement course).

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Work is carried out on one party of sheet of a standard format. 

At a writing of the text of a field should remain on all four parties of sheet. The size of the left field - 30 mm, right - 15 mm, top - 20 mm, bottom - 20 mm, at printing a font-14 and an interval - 1,5.

All sheets of term paper should be numbered. Each paragraph in the text should have heading in exact conformity with the name in the plan-table of contents.

The new paragraph can be begun on the same page on which has come to an end previous if some lines of the text are located on this page except heading.

Figures in the grouped and systematised kind are represented in tables and schedules. Important value has registration of the last. Tables usually are located on a course of a statement after the reference to them, however it is not recommended to transfer the table from one page on another; is especially inadmissible to break off heading with the table, placing them on different pages. Tables should have a serial number, the heading reflecting their maintenance, and in the note - a reference to the source. 

The quantity of a digital material should correspond to the maintenance of term paper. It is not necessary to result the data which do not have the direct relation to the stated question. 

In tables, the text it is necessary to avoid a full writing of the big numbers. For this purpose it is expedient to integrate units of measure depending on necessary degree of accuracy.

In work it is possible to use only the standard reductions and symbols.

Use in work of figures, conclusions, thoughts of other authors (in retelling) and citations without fail should be accompanied by references to the used works. These references can be made in the form of footnotes in the bottom part of page with instructions of the author, the name of work, publishing house, year of the edition and page number where there is a given statement.

It is necessary to do retelling of thoughts and conclusions of other authors without distortion of these thoughts. Citations should be carefully verified and quoted. 

The list of the used literature and other sources of data is made in the following sequence: 

2. Statutory acts, instructive materials, official directories etc.

3. The special literature in alphabetic order.

4. Periodicals with instructions of year and month of release of magazines and newspapers (if articles from them are not resulted in the previous section of the list of the literature).

Last stage of performance of term paper is its external registration.

Term paper should be signed the student.

9. Protection of term paper

Term paper should be written to target dates. The student who has not protected term paper in time, is considered having the academic debts and it is not supposed to passing an examination on corresponding discipline. 

Protection of term paper has for an object to reveal depth and independence of knowledge of the student on the selected theme. On protection the student should be guided well in the presented work, to be able to explain sources of figures, to answer questions both theoretical, and the practical character, works concerning a theme.

Before protection the student prepares both on work as a whole, and under remarks of the head.

Protection consists of a summary the student of substantive provisions of work. The special attention should be given those sections of work in which there are critical remarks and offers of the student concerning the selected theme. In the end of the message the student answers the remarks of the head made it in a response. At an estimation of term paper it is considered both quality of a writing of work, and results of its protection. Work in which relation the teacher had an opinion as about unsatisfactory, comes back to the student for thorough processing taking into account the remarks stated in a response.

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