More deeply to familiarise with the maintenance of a scientific problem, its historical ambiguity;
To get skills of the independent theoretical analysis of a problem;
To seize ability of the logic description of the done research.
Besides, by means of course teachers of chairs select students for specialisation as many not so look well on offsets, yet have not seized skill of an accurate statement of the knowledge. Far not everyone possesses temperament of the debater, ready to express at seminars and consequently them it is not especially visible on employment. But if the person has abilities to scientific analytical work, he can write quite good term paper.
Themes are given by the teacher in October, students choose the most interesting to themselves and in one-two weeks inform on it in dean's office. To choose it is necessary intelligently and at the same time quickly: the number is limited by that, and your companions on group also have own plans for current year. At desire it is possible and to (change) a work theme that is always co-ordinated with the teacher.
As the purpose course - development of skills of scientific work, is necessary to you close interaction with the teacher. Therefore it is necessary to mean: the teacher will be constantly interested in a course of your work. You will repeatedly discuss its text with it. The relation to you depends On results also. After end of work it in group with participation of opponents from among students, gives a total estimation the teacher.
The teacher weekly carries out consultations on work, and on these consultations it is necessary to go. What for? First, as though you were ingenious, the teacher possesses considerably wide experience of scientific work which it will share with you absolutely free of charge and rather willingly as any person including the scientist, wishes to be listened. Besides, the teacher can offer you valuable ideas and recommend the scientific literature. It too to neglect does not follow, as for the life he has read obviously more than you, and with authors can be simply familiar or together studied.
At last, the teacher never gives to in what was not engaged itself. He knows a problematics very well and, most likely, to it is not indifferent. Nobody will force you to agree with its conclusions completely. On the contrary, the non-standard approach even is welcomed! But it is necessary to mean, that you should prove to (prove) the representations because the teacher very seriously concerns not only a theme, but also to scientific objectivity.
TECHNOLOGY OF WORK
In term paper it is necessary to prove (or to prove) the idea allocated with you. To make it it is competent, it is necessary to familiarise with the basic literature on a theme and to orient in a problematics. Here you should use the analytical abilities really for the first time.
Acquaintance with the literature begins usually with viewing of own essays on the chosen theme, and then and the new material concerning the investigated problem. Studying of new scientific sources forces to look at a studied subject in a new fashion.
As you have already understood at a writing of essays, any theme has a basic source which is necessary for studying thoroughly. The source is published according to the academic requirements, therefore necessarily there should be introduction, final articles and the comment. The author of the introduction, as a rule, one of the basic experts in the given question, and in comments it is possible to gather a lot of interesting and about other authors. Then it is necessary to go to library and to read any publication of this author.
In it for certain there will be many footnotes on monographies and articles in a subject interesting you. Write out them and check up presence in library. At the same time does not prevent to write out and basic ideas containing in them. The main thing for you - divergences of authors. Always it is possible to find two points of view on a subject and the basic stages of its research.
Further there comes a catalogue turn: you should find corresponding section and to see cards. There also it is possible to find for the necessary books and to bring them in own card file which not only is useful for a writing of term paper, but also will save time at the subsequent researches.
Now, having found out a minimum, it is possible to go on consultation and to talk to the teacher on a theme course. You can name the problems solved by scientists, and to show the in them awareness. Most of all the teacher loves at all knowledge of its own works, and understanding of complexity of its interesting problem and distinctions in approaches to its decision. Certainly, from the big number of the names of works written down by you remains to no more third. If the teacher not the beginner, it never gives you a theme which can be written off whence. And it means, that it is necessary to work not with such and the big file of the literature.
Let's consider technology of work more particularly. Having chosen after the coordination close to you (to your interests) a theme, for example "Psychological competence as a structural component of professional work of the head", it is necessary to reveal object of your research. As it administrative activity of the head acts.
But this general problem field of reflexion. Define, (and what aspect) administrative activity you will investigate what element particularly, i.e. a work subject. Certainly, it is psychological competence of the head as means (factor) of increase of efficiency of administrative activity.
The following stage - statement of the purpose of work. For example: a theoretical substantiation of essence and the maintenance of psychological competence of the head; revealing of ways and means of formation of psychological competence, etc.
Think over work hypotheses. Otherwise you will have nothing to prove. As a first approximation on the chosen theme it is possible to formulate at least three hypotheses:
Increase of psychological competence is a necessary condition of efficiency of administrative activity of the head;
Application of psychological competence of management practical activities in the big degrees provides the in the lead status of the head;
Priority direction of preparation of the modern head - mastering by psychotechnologies of management.
On the basis of told it is possible to define work directions, having allocated studying priorities:
Psychological competence as the basis of administrative activity (management of the personnel);
Priority directions of formation of psychological competence of the modern head.
After that it is necessary for you to define methods of realisation of the first scientific research: the theoretical analysis of the literature on a problem; generalisation of domestic and foreign experience; the content-analysis of newspaper and journal publications Etc. probably, you will carry out small (illustrative) socially-psychological research. Then you should address to such methods, as questioning, interview, psychodiagnostics etc.
For the organisation of own time it is possible to make an operating schedule of a writing of term paper:
Studying of the available literature;
Carrying out researches (terms);
If research assumes application of concrete psychological techniques they are necessary for entering in the schedule: for example interview to competent people (with whom, in what organisations, when as results will be fixed and generalised, preparation of the form of interview, conversation or the report form);
Writing of the first, second sections and consultation terms on them;
Work delivery (in what terms, in what form).
Realising the stages of work designated above, you will provide with its reliable methodical, theoretical and empirical base. The rest depends on your ability to generalise and do conclusions.
When work is executed also all reasons are shown together, structured, have got sense and even have given any scientific conclusions (the last happens not always, but much more often, than it it is possible to assume), they need to be issued properly.
The purpose of registration of work - to make so that your scientific achievements became accessible not only in oral, but also in writing, have entered into a scientific turn and the teacher and your colleagues-students could read and estimate them. While the course is in a head, on isolated leaves, in marks on fields of books, on a draught copy - it still is not present.
Any course should correspond to the accepted standard. This standard has been developed specially for convenience of readers. It provides certain structure of the text, its partitioning, system of footnotes, level of the argument and, at last, registration.
Term paper is made out with big carefulness, than the essay. The necessary requirement - the title page (is not numbered).
The title page is followed by the plan for separate page (with. 2). According to the intelligent and structured material make the definitive plan of work and start a writing. The plan includes introduction, the basic part, the conclusion, the list of the used sources and the appendix.
Let's formulate the general instructions under the maintenance of term paper.
Introduction should reflect an urgency, the practical importance, the purposes and the problems solved in the basic part.
The basic part should contain the in detail-substantial structural components of various researches allocated in the course of the analysis on the given problem. It is a question of structurization of the problem chosen by you which reflects quite certain phenomenon. Your research defines, what components of the phenomenon have been studied, and what else it is necessary to study.
There is a limited number of ways of a writing of scientific work. We recognise that some experience you already have received, working over essays. The statement can be chronological if the author states a problem in its development, and analytical then the statement follows problem structure. If a statement chronological, your problem - to systematise thoughts of the author. If the statement analytical, is better to state a problem in its development. Both principles are equal in rights.
In the conclusion on the basis of the analysed material conclusions become and recommendations (theoretical or experimental) which can promote promotion of hypotheses of the subsequent researches in this area are whenever possible offered.
The work volume is not limited, but it is not necessary to do its too laconic or too amorphous. As practice shows, the volume from 15 to 25 pages of the typewritten text is sufficient.