Temp paper is the major element of independent work of students. A main objective of temp paper is creation and development of skills of research work, abilities to work with the scientific literature to do on the basis of its studying conclusions and generalisations.
Temp paper is scientific working out of a concrete theme of research during training and mastering by students by a certain media speciality in sphere of business and political journalism. Being small educational article or the project description, temp paper should under the maintenance and the form to represent the scientific text where theoretical approaches to the put problem are designated.
Temp papers are written on: educational streams with the higher and average vocational education in the terms corresponding to curricula.
Temp paper should show ability of the listener independently to state a problem, to reveal the most priority questions, to apply research elements, or to present own experimental or skilled data.
Temp paper differs from scientific reports and performances of students by that everyone should carry out it trained in written form, in the form co-ordinated with the supervisor of studies and in strictly designated terms. Meanwhile, the problematics of temp paper can be used in oral performance on seminar or practical employment.
Temp paper cannot be simple compilation and consist of fragments of various articles and books. It should be a scientific, complete material, to have the facts and the data opening interrelation between the phenomena, processes, arguments, actions and to contain something new: generalisation of the extensive literature, materials of empirical researches in which there is an author's vision of a problem and its decision. The structure of temp paper, its purpose, problems, a technique of research and conclusions submits to this general-theoretical position.
Temp paper is the qualifying uchebno-scientific work of the student devoted to independent working out of the selected problem.
1. Accurate are formulated: a problem and research questions.
2. Their urgency, degree of a level of scrutiny, a study condition is proved.
3. At its research methodological knowledge is used.
4. It is carried out on the basis of acquaintance to theoretical and practical approaches to analyzed problems, contains the scientific conclusions important for the further studying of pressing questions of functioning of mass-media.
5. In a complete kind represents complete, homogeneous research.
It is necessary to consider, that the choice of a theme of temp paper is carried out freely, including and the right of the student to the subjects with a detailed substantiation of necessity of its working out. However, possibilities of a scientific management from teachers of chairs and communication with a key problematics of branch of business and political journalism are thus considered.
Themes of temp papers are developed chairs according to a research problem of chair and scientific interest of each teacher.
The supervisor of studies of temp paper of the student or is appointed at will of the student, or gets out members of chair. Then on faculty meeting themes of temp papers and supervisors of studies affirm. Change of temp papers by that probably only through procedure of the decision of chair.The operating procedure over a course theme includes following stages:
· the Choice of a theme and conversation with the head, the statement its chair;
· material Gathering, search of the literature in a theme, bibliography preparation, drawing up of the personal working plan;
· Preparation of the first variant;
· Delivery of the first variant of temp paper to the supervisor of studies;
· text Completion under remarks, its definitive registration and representation on chair where the response of the supervisor of studies with an estimation of the done work should be enclosed. Presence of the head on protection of temp paper of the student necessarily.
Choice of a theme of work.
Work on temp paper begins with a theme choice which it is necessary to concern very responsibly. The subjects of temp papers are offered chair. It has approximate character. The student, proceeding from the scientific interests, can, in coordination with the teacher, offer own theme of temp paper which should correspond to a problematics of that discipline in which frameworks work is carried out. The choice of a theme of work should be based on primary studying of the maintenance of a problem. Only in this case it will appear realised, that is the important precondition of a successful writing of work.
The basic complexity at a theme choice can consist that this choice and, partly, a work writing occurs in the course of subject studying, instead of after its termination. In this connection it is expedient to student to address to consultations of the teacher which will direct search of the student to the necessary channel, but at the same time they will not replace work of the student with stages of a choice of a theme.
It is quite good, if the student, having become interested on the first course any of scientific problems, will deepen its studying and research on older years, choosing "through" subjects. In this case the given problem it will be comprehensively consecutive to be studied, from this point of view various media disciplines. The performed temp papers can form a good basis of final qualifying and research papers, and sometimes and the master's thesis (that soldier who does not carry a marshal's baton in a satchel is bad).
Drawing up of a preliminary variant of the plan
On the basis of familiarity with the literature and a digital material which can be, it is used at a writing of temp paper, the initial variant of the plan of temp paper is made. Usually temp paper consists of the introduction, two-four paragraphs and the conclusion.At scheduling it is necessary to plan, first of all, basic "marks", to define an approximate circle of questions which will be considered in separate paragraphs, and their sequence. These questions can, in definitively fulfilled variant of the plan it is not underlined, but at an initial stage they are used for the so-called worker, the developed plan on whom temp paper is written.Any theme can be opened differently. But the plan of temp paper reflects its basic directions. The work plan should reflect the basic idea of work, open its maintenance and character. In it theme pressing questions should be allocated most. At scheduling there should not be a template. And still usually the first paragraph of temp paper shines the question theory; in the subsequent paragraphs the basic question of a theme is stated. The student co-ordinates the made plan with the head of temp paper.
Order of preparation of temp paper
Work on temp paper should not be postponed for last days. To concern it it is necessary with all responsibility and conscientiousness. Only the regular, correctly planned and organised work will allow to achieve good result precisely to a target date
The order of preparation of work usually includes following basic stages.
1. Drawing up of the approximate plan. In the course of a writing of work the plan can be corrected.
2. Literature selection according to the purposes reflected in the plan. Thus equally important both to listen to councils of the supervisor of studies, and to show due independence. There is no unique source in which the student could find the full bibliography on its interesting problem. Occurrence of new publications-continuous process behind which it is necessary to learn constantly to watch.
Literature selection is a responsible stage of a writing of any scientific work, demanding certain efforts. In bibliography drawing up the big help regular catalogues and special reviews of the new literature of scientific libraries, periodic information publications (for example can render, the Bulletin of the Moscow State University a series "Journalism", the Bibliographic index of Institute of the scientific information on social studies analytical editions, magazine "Environment«, essay collections, etc.) it is necessary to familiarise independently with publications in special magazines. Great volume of the helpful information can be found the Internet in a network. The given stage comes to the end with bibliography drawing up - the list of publications on the chosen theme with which it is necessary to familiarise.
3. Studying of the picked up literature. Work at this stage is expedient for accompanying records, in this or that form fixing the main thought and system of proofs of the author, studying statistical and a material with corresponding marks, drawing up of short summaries of the seen sources. Similar efforts considerably facilitate the further work, do unnecessary the repeated reference to the same source of the information.
4. A writing of a text variant of work. Before passing to a text writing, it is necessary to think over thoroughly logic of a statement, system of arguments for the proof of the main thought. This stage comes to an end with the formulation of the basic theses.
Here it is necessary to remember a number of important points.
It is not necessary to suppose literal copying, copying of the read literature. The statement should be conducted by independently, words and to testify volume, that the author has understood a being of cases in point, has the point of view and is able to state it so that it was clear another. It does not exclude the citing possibility, each citation should be made out in appropriate way.
The statement should be conducted by competent language, without stylistic and logic errors. It is important to define accurate structure of work in advance.
Footnotes, references to various sources, notes are made out according to existing rules.
Volume, structure and the work maintenance
The total amount of temp paper should make about 1 item of l. (40 thousand symbols with blanks) or 24 pages typed on the computer by 14 font Times New Roman with an one-and-a-half interval between lines.
Correctly issued work should include:
1. The title page.
2. The plan (table of contents).
4. The basic part.
5. The conclusion.
6. The list of the used literature
7. The appendix ().
The title page and the plan are performed on the two first sheets of work on the certain form.
In introduction following basic moments are reflected:- The general formulation of a theme;- Theoretical and practical value of the chosen theme, its urgency;- Degree of a readiness of a problem;- Specific targets of research which the author has put before itself;- The explanation of how the author intends to solve tasks in view, a substantiation of logic sequence of opened questions, the general order of research and work structure; - The sources of the information used in work.
Introduction should be short (1-3 pages) and accurate. It is not necessary to overload it with general phrases. The main thing that the reading has understood to that the work is devoted, the author for itself has planned what problems.
The basic part consists of heads who can share on paragraphs, and paragraphs, in turn. - on points. The name of any chapter should not coincide completely with the name of temp paper (otherwise presence of other heads becomes excessive), and the name of any paragraph to duplicate the name of the head.
It is not necessary to overload the work plan. In temp paper really to consider two, a maximum - three heads.
In the conclusion it is necessary to formulate accurately the basic conclusions to which the author has come. Conclusions should be short and integrally follow from the work maintenance. It is authorised to repeat the basic conclusions of corresponding heads, but thus it is more preferable to aspire to make some generalisations by results of the carried out research as a whole.
The list of the used literature is made out on the established order. It includes all literature on which there are references in the text, and also those major sources which have been anyhow used though are not resulted in references and notes.
Appendices this element of structure of work is not obligatory. Appendices are expedient for entering, when the author uses rather a considerable quantity of bulky tables, a statistical material. Such material placed in the basic part, would complicate work reading. Usually in the text it is enough to refer to the similar information included in the appendix only.
After end of a definitive variant of work the supervisor of studies prepares the conclusion and exposes a tentative estimation. The definitive estimation is exposed to the student by results of work protection. During protection the author should be ready for 5 minutes orally to state results of the carried out research and to answer questions. Ability to answer questions capaciously and accurately is obvious advantage of any student applying for an appreciation.
The basic criteria of an estimation of temp paper follow from requirements shown to it. Such criteria is the following.
1) Depth of the analysis, ability to understand the mentioned problems.
2) Independence, the creative approach to a considered problem.
3) Use of the newest statistical material.
4) Completeness of the decision of all those problems which the author himself has put itself in work.
5) Literacy, logicality in a material statement
6) Quality of registration.
Certainly, by preparation for protection the author should have a copy of the text of work as its first copy some days prior to protection surrenders on chair on which it has been executed.
Estimation of temp paper.
Each temp paper taking into account its maintenance is estimated on ten-ball system. Temp paper should be written to the terms established by chair. Work which the teacher recognised as unsatisfactory, comes back for processing taking into account the remarks stated in a response. Untimely granting of temp paper on chair is equated to absence on examination, therefore to the students who have not handed over without a good reason in time temp paper, the unsatisfactory estimation is put. The student who has not handed over temp paper in time, is considered having the academic debts and it is not supposed to passing an examination on the given discipline.
The basic requirements to registration of the text of work
Work is carried out on the computer. Use of the standards which have been put in pawn in the editor of type Word is preferable. Listing becomes on a white standard sheet of a paper of format ?4 210?297 mm. The basic requirements are more low led to registration of the standard printing text.
Requirements to registration of the text prepared with use of a computer set:
1. Installation of fields: top - 2 see bottom - 2.5 see left - 2 see right - 2 see
2. An interval between lines - one-and-a-half.
3. The Font - 14, Times New Roman
4. Pages number in the right top corner. The first page (title page) and the second (table of contents) are not numbered, but are considered.
5. Each paragraph is printed from a new paragraph.
6. In case of use of tables and illustrations it is necessary to consider, that:
· the unique illustration and the table are not numbered;
· numbering of illustrations and tables is supposed as through (Table 1, Table 2 etc.), and under heads (Rice 4.1. Rice 5.2, etc.);
· in columns of the table it is impossible to leave empty seats. It is necessary to fill them or a sign "-" or to write "is not present", "there are no data"
7. For editing of mathematical formulas it is recommended to use corresponding appendices of computer programs. Each formula is numbered by the Arabian figures. Numbering principles are similar to numbering of tables. Number is underlined near to the formula in parentheses. In the text should be accurately specified, that designates each used symbol.
Rules of registration of references and notes
References and footnotes contain various additions, explanatories to the text, and also instructions on a source from which the citation a material is borrowed. For communication of the reference with the text signs on footnotes serve. Them put in the text at that place where it is necessary to refer to any source or to give the explanatory, and also before the reference. As signs on footnotes the Arabian figures serve.
References are numbered one after another within each page. Through numbering of all references of the head is supposed. Then in the end of the head the heading of "Note" is written and the text of all references follows. At use of a computer set the menu "Insert", then - "Footnote" "is used.
Registration of the list of the used literature
1. Numbering of the used literature continuous - from the first to last source.
2. Registration of the list of the used literature is recommended to be carried out by a principle of the alphabetic nominal index (in general, the alphabet of authors and titles) in the following sequence:
· the literature in Russian,
· the literature in languages of the people using Cyrillics.
· the literature in languages of the people using a Latin
3. The description of the sources included in the list, is carried out according to existing bibliographic rules.
· the Surname of the author or a surname of authors from a capital letter.
· the Basic title.
· Data on the edition. -
· an edition Place: Publishing house or the publishing organisation. Edition date. - in domestic editions reductions are accepted: Moscow - St.-Petersburg - SPb., Leningrad - L. In foreign editions are reduced: London - L., Paris-., New York-N.Y.