"The short dictionary of literatures of terms" treats an essay as "a sketch version in which the leading role is played not by fact reproduction, and the image of impressions, meditations, associations". The composition in a genre of an essay demands from the author not only ability to show "the sum of knowledge", but also to emphasise own feelings, experiences, the relation to about what he writes. In a word, the author of an essay not simply story-teller, it - its hero.
For an essay the strongly pronounced author's position, sincerity, an emotionality are characteristic. The genre grants the right to a subjective statement of the declared problem and a free composition. Its borders, in general, are washed away. Essays define as a note, sketches, meditations. It usually has small volume.
It would seem, all is clear. But not all so is simple. It is good to create in an essay genre, if you Arthur Schopenhauer or Michel Montaigne! For the teacher the problem consists that on history or the social science, executed in the form of an essay, it is necessary to estimate the creative task - and to estimate objectively. How to combine everything, that has been noted above (a free composition, the right to author's subjectivity, figurativeness and an emotionality), with notorious knowledge, skills: possession of terms and concepts, receptions of comparison, comparison, the argument, the analysis, synthesis, ability to illustrate the theory the facts from a public life and personal experience?
The dialectic contradiction is available: the art form and the analytical maintenance, the subjective and objective parties of social knowledge.
In our practice of teaching of disciplines some recommendations which help pupils to seize receptions and ways of a writing of an essay on social science are developed.
Work is necessary for beginning with a draught copy. Pupils at times do not know, that such a draught copy, and write it as a "clean" (definitive) variant of work: the same densely used up sheet, without fields and badges - one difference, that on-pisan negligent. Such draught copy does not leave space for perfection of the text, thought polishing, does not give possibility to work creatively. Wrong (we name them so) draught copies approach for works of character which, in turn, at repeated repetition form panic fear of the independent statement.
How to be? Draught copy sheets are useful for leaving half empty (wide fields!) to write only on its one party. Fields are necessary to make corrections and additions in process and editings of the initial text. On the back of sheet there is a place for record of citations, the examples concretising thought, and so forth
Important "trifle": the first record both in a draught copy, and in a definitive variant is an accurate information of a theme of an essay. A theme - some kind of a problem condition in which, to understand, it is necessary to ponder. The theme, as a rule, is formulated so, that assumes not one "correct" answer, and set of decisions. Getting a grasp of it, the pupil appears in that creative space which is outlined by it. If separate words, thoughts (and even in some cases the formulation as a whole) are repeated in the essay text it is not necessary to consider it as a lack. The main task of the pupil - to understand and open a theme, instead of to "leave" from it (a situation rather extended in school practice).
So, the theme is chosen, realised, definitely understood. As a rule, essay themes on social science have problem, sometimes debatable character and are offered in the form of the statement of the scientist, the writer, the poet, the thinker. It is extremely important to allocate the basic idea of the author of the statement and to define, in what frameworks of section or a theme of its course it is necessary to consider.
It is useful on a draught copy in the free form to write out everything, that can be necessary in an essay: concepts, contradictions, associations, citations, examples, theses, opinions, arguments, names, events. In a word, to "indulge, write down everything, that it seems necessary, interesting, concerning a theme. There is a rational grain in the statement:" Writing not in a head, and in tips of fingers ".
The following problem - to put all this "chaos" in order, to correlate with a theme, to choose the effective citation, the exact thought, the interesting fact, convincing argument.
The most responsible parts of work - the introduction and the conclusion. The introduction focuses an essay problematics, puts key questions, specifies in contradictions, reveals aspects of a theme. The brightest thought which is summing up, summarising reasonings should become the conclusion.
For example, the theme "At us is not present time to become by itself" (A.Kamju) assumes, that the pupil will devote the essay to problems of self-knowledge, consciousness, self-improvement of the person, will consider features of formation of "ja-concept", will put existential problems of human life. Speaking differently, will address to questions of development of the person. A theme "Not bread uniform the person" is live puts a problem
Parities material and spiritual needs of the person, contradictions between them. It means, that written out on a draught copy and the concepts which have entered into the definitive text, terms, at-measure, citations, arguments should be anyhow connected with the given problematics.
The essay structure is defined by requirements shown to it. Thoughts of the author of an essay on a problem are stated in the form of short theses (). The thought should be supported by proofs - therefore the thesis is followed by arguments (). Arguments are the facts, the phenomena of a public life, event, vital situations and life experience, scientific proofs, references to opinion of scientists, etc. it is better to result two arguments in favour of each thesis: one argument seems unpersuasive, three arguments can "overload" a statement executed in a genre, focused on brevity and figurativeness.
Thus, the essay gets ring structure (the quantity of theses and arguments depends on a theme, the selected plan, logic of development of thought):
The thesis, arguments
The thesis, arguments
The thesis, arguments
Let's notice: the introduction and the conclusion focus attention to a problem (in the introduction it is put, in the conclusion - the opinion of the author is summarised).
It is necessary for pupil to remind of value of allocation of paragraphs, a role of new paragraphs, logic communication of paragraphs: so integrity of work is reached.
The attention needs to be turned and on style of a statement. It is impossible to forget, that essays are inherent an emotionality, artistry. Experts believe, that the due effect is provided with short, simple, various offers on intonations, skilful use of the "advanced" punctuation mark - a dash. However, style reflects features of the person, too it is useful to remember it.
In the second part of article I will stop on the receptions providing creative development conceptually-kategorialnogo of the device of a course of social science (confident possession of terms and concepts - a primary condition of success at work on an essay).
1. A philosophical estimation.
This reception allows to concretise ability of schoolboys to learn and distinguish problem, independently to express own point of view.
It is "transfer" of the text into language of philosophical categories. Reception allows to define presence of philosophical laws and categories at concrete statements, to reveal forms and receptions of thinking, abilities to communicate and analyze. On language of philosophical categories it is possible to translate proverbs, citations, fragments from works of art and so forth
3. Comprehension of a problem and attempt of its permission.
The text is offered, in which the problem contains in implicit (unevident for pupils) a kind. Pupils should see this problem and give reason for its possible decision.
4. Revealing and comparison of concepts, positions of authors, the points of view, opinions.
Results of work pertinently to issue in a tabular kind.
5. Construction of the philosophical offer or the text.
The problem consists in that from the offered set of terms to construct the true, intelligent offer.
These are riddles, crossword puzzles, anagrammes, cryptogrammes, labyrinths, magic squares and so forth
They assume development of a theoretical material and its representation in the game, personified form. The purpose consists in mastering by pupils by new social roles, mastering of cultural experience.
8. The individualised reflective tasks.
They are directed on the mediated, indirect introspection, self-planning and self-checking. The purposes are realised by creation of situations of "carrying over" (some kind of the description of an imagined life and activity in set time and in any space) and a moral choice, and also a writing of an essay or imagined dialogue with the thinker.
9. Creation of situations of dialektiko-logic contradictions.
Tasks are under construction on the basis of a material comprising communication of contrasts. It is necessary to select a corresponding teaching material, to define the moment of its inclusion in a course, to define concrete type of a situation.
It is necessary to underline, that the given criteria as a whole are essay, at their application to concrete works inevitably there are difficulties. Development of criteria of works of the creative, subjective maintenance remains the important problem of the modern educational theory and practice.