Working at the basic school, I have faced that already since the sixth class children wish to write essays, yet not knowing the word "essay". The various literature in a subject and if the child has read any interesting book is Now accessible, he would like to share it, to draw to itself attention. He speaks to the teacher: «I have such book. It is possible, I will write the report?» - believing, that he will copy any fragment of this book and will receive the five.
Whether there is a sense in such work? Whether the teacher should encourage it? On the one hand, it, apparently, supports interest to a subject, but with another - creates false representation that the report in written form (essay) to make very easily and there is nothing to study here. Such representation remains at pupils to the senior classes. And the teacher, as a rule, is satisfied with that the pupil has found any sources, has accurately copied or has reprinted a material on the computer, has made drawings, it is beautiful (let not under the standard) has issued and does not pay attention that in work there is no introduction, conclusions, the information source is not specified.
I think what to accustom children to work on the essay follows already at the basic school. In my opinion, there is nothing bad that the school essay will be completely work, i.e. will be made of fragments of another's works. It is important, that by means of the chosen fragments the theme has been opened. Gradually the child will learn to formulate and own thoughts. It is necessary only that on each essay the teacher gave the written review and achieved continuation of work on it taking into account the made remarks.
Work brought to your attention «How to write the essay?» It is addressed schoolboys. I hope, that it will appear useful at the organisation of this kind of independent work of pupils.
1. What is the essay and for what purpose it is written
The word "essay" occurs from Latin referre, meaning to "report,"inform", and has some values [5, 6]. The Major importance of this word concerns a summary of the maintenance of the book, article or any other work [3, 5].
To us other value of this word is more important - we will understand the theoretical work based on already known facts in which more or less full any theme reveals as the essay. Actually it is article, in the short form stating already known (published) data on the chosen theme, a subject, a direction. Therefore the essay assumes use of references.
Essays are for what purpose written? The teacher, offering the pupil to write the essay, counts that that will more deeply penetrate into a subject essence, will expand the knowledge on it and if also will make the message (report) on an essay theme will share the knowledge with others. Offering the pupil to write the essay, the teacher wishes to learn it to work with the information: to collect a material (literature) on the given theme, to systematise, allocate the main thing, it is consecutive, logical to state a subject essence. Work on the essay allows to understand more deeply a theme, it is better to acquire it, develops skills of organisation and the purposefulness, necessary at studying of any subject.
The pupil, undertaken an essay writing, as a rule, pursues one aim: to receive a good mark. To receive a good mark if you have well worked, has fairly made the business it it is quite fair. It is good, if thus the pupil has a desire to expand and deepen the knowledge in a subject.
At the beginning at the pupil can be and one more purpose - to learn to work over the essay. Do not think, that it so is simple. It is necessary to be able to write the essay.
2. A theme choice
To write the essay, it is necessary to choose a theme first of all. The teacher can offer a theme, and can choose its and. Choosing a theme, you should be guided, first, by, whether it is interesting to you, and whether you, secondly, can find the literature on this theme. Therefore do not hurry up: look, what literature is on a question of the house interesting you and that it is possible to find in library. By literature search thematic catalogues can help with library. Learn from the bibliographer or the librarian as them to use. Taking the book which has interested you, first of all familiarise with the summary and a table of contents to learn, what questions in it are considered.
The theme can be formulated differently: one formulations have very wide sense, for example, a theme "Mushrooms", others - narrower, for example "Mushrooms-parasites", or narrower: «Mushrooms - parasites of plants», "Edible fungi", «Poisonous mushrooms».
If the name having wide sense it is necessary to be guided by all-round coverage of a subject is chosen: to write about much, but it is short, not going into details, i.e. about the most important thing. If the theme is formulated narrowly besides data of the general character the essay can contain separate details.
3. Work on the essay
Let's assume, you have chosen a theme. What to do further?
The majority of children arrive so. We will tell, the theme "Mushrooms" is chosen. The pupil takes «the Encyclopedia for children» or any other book where something is written about mushrooms, and starts to copy from it corresponding sections. Diligent pupils copy all successively, instead of especially diligent all to copy laziness successively, and they let out some paragraphs. I will tell at once: both those, and others do incorrectly. Such copying to anybody does not bring advantage, but only takes away time and from the one who writes, and at the one who checks.
With what to begin? First of all it is necessary to make the plan. At first draught, for itself, that the nobility about what and in what sequence to write. As an initial source of the information it is possible to take the school textbook. Familiarise with the maintenance of the books picked up by you and choose a material to which can add the textbook information. Thus, maybe, you will want to specify or change some the initial plan of the essay.
In a general view the structure of any essay should be approximately following [2, 3]:
1. Introduction - a substantiation of an urgency (importance) of the chosen theme.
2. The basic part - a general characteristic, the description and the analysis of a subject (phenomenon), preliminary conclusions.
3. The conclusion - definitive conclusions.
Let's discuss more in detail the maintenance of these sections.
In any essay there should be "Introduction". It can be small and consist, for example, all of one paragraph, and can include and some paragraphs or even the whole page, and even it is more. If work small also introduction should not be big.
Already the name has undressed "Introduction", sense of the word, speaks about necessity to show the ropes about what speech in the essay will go. Here it is necessary to note, than the given theme is interesting or important, to allocate the basic questions which are supposed to be considered. For example, if you have chosen a theme "Mushrooms", it is possible to tell, that mushrooms are a kingdom of live organisms which have the features distinguishing them both from plants, and from animals and who play very important role in the nature (biosphere of the Earth). Means, the basic maintenance of the essay will be aimed at showing, than mushrooms differ from plants and from animals and they play what role to the nature.
If you write about mushrooms-parasites in "introduction" it is possible to result data on that, how many from known kinds of mushrooms concerns to parasitic what representatives of kingdoms of live organisms can be owners of parasitic mushrooms. If you write about poisonous mushrooms it is possible to specify, how many it is known kinds of poisonous mushrooms, how many people annually poison with mushrooms.
Thus, in "introduction" you result the most general data on a subject (problem) and speak about why this subject (problem) is important.
3.2. The basic part
Here the detailed plan is necessary. It is necessary to consider carefully structure of this part, to build sequence of a statement that it has not turned out so, that you at first speak about one, then about the friend, the third, then come back again to the first, mention the third and the fourth and again something about the first - a word that was not in your statement of mess, confusions.
Give we will look, as it is possible to make the plan for all the same theme "Mushrooms". At first it is necessary to give a general characteristic of a kingdom of mushrooms, to show their regular position in the wildlife world, to show, than they differ from the live organisms concerning other kingdoms. It is possible and to write down this point of the plan: «1. The General characteristic of a kingdom of mushrooms».
Further it is necessary to tell about what mushrooms from the point of view of their structure happen. And we will write down: «2. A structure of mushrooms. Features of a structure of a mushroom cage». Here it is necessary not to forget to tell about a structure and structure of a cellular cover of mushrooms.
So, with the first point of section «3. Properties of mushrooms» we have consulted. We pass to the second - «Breath of mushrooms». This point will be shorter.
Now about allocation: mushrooms the same as at plants, unlike animals, do not have special systems and allocation bodies. Substances unnecessary them leave through a body surface.
Further it is necessary to discuss three properties which are caused by cage division: growth, development, reproduction. Feature of mushrooms is top growth and ability to grow throughout all life - the same as at plants. Speaking about reproduction of mushrooms, it is necessary to mention what ways of reproduction in general exist in the nature (sexual and sexless) and what of them meet at mushrooms. It is desirable to present the general scheme of ways of reproduction of mushrooms, and then to result the examples, what way of reproduction for what mushrooms is characteristic, what mushrooms have an alternation of sexual and sexless reproduction, for what mushrooms mainly sexless reproduction is characteristic.
For such properties as movement, development and the irritability, separate points to allocate it is not necessary, since one of them are absent, and it is possible to mention others, speaking about growth of mushrooms.
Then it is possible to pass to systematisation of mushrooms which is based, on the one hand, on their structure (the lowest and higher mushrooms), and with another - on features of reproduction
After have discussed features of a structure of mushrooms, their properties, classification principles, it is necessary to open their role in the nature and human life. Here first of all it is necessary to stop for their roles of destroyers of organic substance, then to tell about value of mushrooms-parasites and about the important role of substances developed by mushrooms - antibiotics, and also about direct use of some mushrooms in economic activities
And now we will look, what plan at us has turned out for the basic part of the essay on a theme "Mushrooms":
1. A general characteristic of a kingdom of mushrooms.
2. A structure of mushrooms.
3. Properties of mushrooms.
4. Classification of mushrooms.
5. A role of mushrooms in the nature and human life.
As we see, it has turned out five sections, and in the third section five more points, but in the fair plan it is possible not to specify and not to allocate these points with subtitles in the text, and it is possible and to allocate, as it will want to you.
Pay attention: we have designated points in two figures divided by a point, the first is number of section, and the second - already actually point. If in any point we have wanted to allocate subparagraphs they to us should be designated already in three figures separated from each other by points, the first - the section number, the second - point, the third - the subparagraph. Such designation is convenient, if in the text there are many gradation. If not so it is a lot of them, for a point designation it is possible to use the letter with a bracket, for example, etc.
3.3. The conclusion
And now we pass to a final part of the essay. Usually it and is called: "Conclusion", but can be called and in another way: "Conclusions", or even so: «the Conclusion and conclusions». In "introduction" the problem is depicted in general, in «the Basic part» everything is in detail described, that concerns this problem, the phenomenon, and now it is necessary to draw conclusions, i.e. is short to answer those questions which have been put in "introduction" and «the basic part».
"Conclusion" is written by the continuous text in the form of narrative offers, for example, so