Councils at a writing of an essay, the report, theses.
Recommendations about preparation for performance before an audience
At a reprint of materials the reference to a site is obligatory.
The REPORT is a summary of the maintenance of scientific work or works of experts in the selected theme, the review of the literature of a certain direction. Such review should give to the reader representation about a modern condition of a level of scrutiny of this or that scientific problem, including comparison of the points of view of experts, and be accompanied by own estimation of their reliability and persuasiveness.
The report is often applied in educational process at studying of those or other training courses, mainly on seminar employment.
Report preparation frequently demands from the lecturer of the big independence and intellectual work.
Performance of such kind of work promotes formation at the schoolboy, the student of skills of independent scientific activity, to its increase theoretical and vocational training, to the best mastering of a teaching material.
Everywhere we face an audience. It can be both schoolboys, and students, both colleagues, and scientists. You should address to them. What we for this purpose need to know, and what recommendations to take advantage?
One of the main moments at a report writing is the theme choice. We will consider all stages of our performance.
1. A choice of a theme of the report
You should be guided by a theme urgency, novelty, the importance, degree of a readiness of a problem, the purposes and report problems.
2. Whether the performance plan is developed by you?
Whether there is a logical sequence of author's thought? Or you plan the report in style: "something I will think up", "somehow I will act".
Whether there are conclusions with accurate fixing main and new? How they sum up to performance?
3. What aim your performance?
The performance purpose is: to inform listeners about something, to explain them something, to discuss any questions. I.e. for the sake of what, I act?
4. Your target audience.
I have prepared the report and I address to pupils, students, colleagues, friends, clients … From it depends as well complexity of the report.
5. What is object of my performance?
I.e. to take something for a basis, for example, the review of any problem, its analysis, the forecast, result, recommendations.
6. Than the report is actual?
Why I have chosen this theme why today it is necessary to speak about it why to it should listen.
I.e. the urgency opens the phenomenon interesting the lecturer in aspects of contradictions and the difficulties which have been not defined by workings out of its predecessors, and also possibility of their permission other means.
7. In what novelty of a theme consists?
Novelty characterises the performance maintenance in comparison with existing analogues is how much new.
As criteria of novelty act: a novelty kind (practical and theoretical novelty), concrete definition level, addition level, transformation level.
8. The is illustrative-distributing material.
You can, both to have, and not to have a distributing material. If your report means any drawings, the received formulas if it contains a part of experimental data it is necessary for having for presentation.
It is proved in practice, that the most effective storing occurs, when all kinds of memory, both visual, and acoustical, and motor are involved. Use of slides, videorecordings will be big plus.
Besides a writing of the report or an essay you should also to act.
Be not late for conference, meeting, meeting! It is very important, that speech of the lecturer was clear, accurate, competent, assured, that does its clear and convincing.
Your speech should be not only clear, but also ekspressivno-painted, i.e. expressive. It depends on speed (rate, speed), loudness and intonation. If the lecturer quickly speaks, hasty, to swallow the terminations of words, words or, on the contrary, silently and muffledly quality of your performance considerably will decrease. The confident, quiet, slow manner of a statement always imposes an audience, and to boring, monotonous speech to listen not interestingly.
Pronunciation infringement, i.e. if the lecturer incorrectly does an accent in a word is inadmissible, distorts it or does not know, how correctly it is uttered. Try not to use also absolutely unfamiliar words before an audience.
Appearance plays an important role. It concerns poses, gestures, clothes, a hairdress, a make-up, accessories of the lecturer. Elegance, accuracy promotes favorable impression and an arrangement to it of listeners.
Before us there is a matter of time, i.e. what is the time it is necessary on performance.
To begin with you should greet an audience, i.e. your listeners, recommend yourselves. After that you represent the school, chair, the organisation, firm. Further you acquaint present with a theme of your performance (approximately on it 1-2 minutes of time are taken away).
After that there is a problem statement, i.e. in the course of a report writing, an essay, theses before us there were such problems of a problem (and their transfer) (it occupies somewhere 3-5 minutes of time).
Further you begin the full performance where the full statement of the problem allocated with you with results of research is underlined. Here it is necessary to include and work with slides, display of illustrations, videorecordings (it is the greatest part of performance on which are taken away 5-10 minutes).
After that you do conclusions, recommendations and the personal relation of the author to opened questions.
For example, on the basis of the done work, we can draw following conclusions …
Methodical recommendations are developed and offered by us for rendering of the practical and methodical help …. (It occupies on duration of 3 5 minutes).
In the end of performance be ready to that listeners will set to you questions (5-10 minutes).
How you see the given problem from a position …?
What scientists were engaged in the given theme?...
What perspective you can offer …?
Before to answer a question, it is necessary to listen to the person attentively. It is recommended to answer at once a question in process of their receipt, instead of to accumulate all and only then, recollecting, that all the same at me asked to think over answers. It is necessary to penetrate into the maintenance of the put questions well.
What sharpness questions and remarks in the course of discussion would not differ, the lecturer is obliged to conduct it at high level, showing a correctness, endurance and tactfulness to opponents. Answering questions, the lecturer should show depth of knowledge on the selected subjects, ability to protect, prove and defend the point of view, to show the general culture and erudition.
Do not forget to thank your listeners for attention to you and to your report, also with interest to listen to other lecturers who will act.
Before performance of necessarily house some times, it is possible before a mirror, be trained to performance!
So, we hope, that the given advice and recommendations will help you as the lecturer, not only competently to write the report, but also to raise success, and efficiency of the performance and purpose achievement.