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In computer systems and internet, web systems have certain terms that refer to certain services. In order to understand how the web system works, one must recognize telnet protocols, the steps involved in the client relationship between a web browser and a web server and the advantages of building a DOM for a received web among other things.

This paper looks at telnet protocols, steps involved in client relationship between a web server and a web page when a user enters a URL and factors that make the latency of a web site.


A telnet protocol refers to a network protocol that functions on the internet or local area networks to provide a dual direction text-oriented, interactive communications facility. It uses a virtual terminal connection. The telnet protocol enables applications and terminals to interface to the internet. The protocol provides basic rules that help to link a client to a command interpreter. The telnet protocol relies on three principles. These principles include the network virtual memory archetype, the negotiated option principle and the rules of negotiation.

When a user enters a URL, to see the resultant web page, certain steps involved in the client relationship between a web browser and a web page must be followed. The first step involves breaking of the URL into three parts. The first part involves the protocol, then the sever name and the file name. The second step is browser communication with the server name and translating the server name into an IP address. It uses this to connect to the server. The next step involves forming a connection with the browser to the server using the IP address on a port. After this, the next step involves following the HTTP protocol. The browser sends GET request to the server.   The server sends an HTML text from the web page to the browser. The last step involves the browser reading the HTML tags and formatting them to the computer screen (Godbole, 2003, p 45).

Four factors exist that make up the latency of a website. The first factor involves distance or propagation delay. This involves the path taken between data transit links between facilities, cities and continents. The second factor involves signal processing. Low-latency transmission solutions focus on transparent signal transmission. This involves putting a protocol directly into a line. GFP/VCAT and OTN provide less latency intolerant applications, improved links and in band management. The third factor involves serialization or throughput delay. Oversubscription and a lot of queuing in circuits cause delay in schedulers and buffers. This forms the reason for low latency links to be built on optical private lines and providing dedicated bandwidth to connections.  The last factor involves variable and alternative paths. These influence failure situations, for example, backhoe and a node shutting down.

Building a DOM for a received web page to a browser has some advantages. It enhances the ability of a web user to build and manage intricate documents and data. A user can access all things in the document to make several updates. A user can work with content in separate pages. Efficiency in moving complex documents from one part of the page to the next becomes possible when using DOM (Godbole, 2003, p 45).

HTTP response messages exist in five categories. The first category involves message types. These consist of requests from clients to the server and response to the client from the server.  The second category of message responses involves message headers.  These include general-header, request header, response heard and entity header.  The next category involves the message body. These carry the entity body that has to do with the request or response, for instance, the transfer coding. The next category involves the message length.  This involves the length of the message body, for example, the transfer coding and 304 responses. The last category involves general header fields. These apply to requests and response messages, for example, cache and connections (Bruce, 2009, p 33). 


Computer operations, especially in the Internet must involve the technical knowhow of how WAAS, HTTP, HTML and telnet protocols operate. This must include the steps followed when a user enters a URL in the web browser in order to find a web server.

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